Ethereum (ETH) - POW/POS - Ethash

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release  Wallet and Mist v 0.9.3


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Geth v1.7.3 (Weir)

    Geth v1.7.3 (Weir) is a maintenance release to address various issues in our previous releases, most importantly along log filtering and replacement transaction propagation. The release also contains a few developer niceties. Please see compatibility section below!

    New features:

    • Roll out v2 of the les light client protocol (#14970, #15367, #15391).
    • Insta-mining, zero CPU, clique based PoA developer mode --dev (#15323).
    • Add API endpoint to list modified accounts between two blocks (#15512).
    • Gas estimation returns error instead of maxgas if transaction cannot be executed (#15477).
    • Improve EVM jump destination analysis for worst case scenarios (#14582).
    • Enforce application/json for HTTP RPC requests (#15220, #15496).
    • Private network faucet support Facebook, Twitter and Google+ authentication (#15313).
    • Support encrypted SSH keys in the Puppeth network manager (#15443).
    • Introduce docker images containing all Ethereum tools (#15467).
    • Start shipping Ubuntu Artful Aardvark launchpad packages (#15344).

    Squashed bugs:

    • Fix log filtering when specifying non-8-multiple starting block number (#15489).
    • Fix replacement transaction propagation (#15343).
    • Reduce disk overhead on keystore startup (#15526, #15527, #15529).
    • Fix occasional Rinkeby chain split by additional fork selection logic (#15470).
    • Fix JavaScript tracing to permit working with Address types (#15297).
    • Fix missing commit hash in docker image versions (#15458, #15464).

    Compatibility caveats:

    • All HTTP RPC requests from now on need to have the Content-Type: application/json header set on them. Geth v1.7.3 will refuse to service requests with no content type headers set (or headers with different content types). This is a security measure to counter a browser CORS circumvention technique.
    • Geth v1.7.3 ships with les/2 light client support, which might have harder time finding light servers initially until the server providers upgrade to v1.7.3 too.

    For a full rundown of changes, please see the v1.7.3 milestone.

    As always, binaries and mobile libraries are available on our download page.


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release pyethereum v2.1.3

    Bump version: 2.1.2 → 2.1.3


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release pyethereum v2.1.4

    Bump version: 2.1.3 → 2.1.4


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release pyethereum v2.1.5


  • Ethereum (ETH) - Security alert — Chromium vulnerability affecting Mist Browser Beta

    Due to a Chromium vulnerability affecting all released versions of the Mist Browser Beta v0.9.3 and below, we are issuing this alert warning users not to browse untrusted websites with Mist Browser Beta at this time. Users of “Ethereum Wallet” desktop app are not affected.

    Affected configurations: Mist Browser Beta v0.9.3 and below Likelihood: Medium Severity: High

    Malicious websites can potentially steal your private keys.

    As Ethereum Wallet desktop app does not qualify as a browser — it accesses only the local Wallet Dapp — it is not subject to the same category of issues present in Mist. For now, it is recommended to use Ethereum Wallet to manage funds and interact with smart contracts instead.

    Mist Browser’s vision is to be a complete user-facing bridge to the ethereum blockchain and set of technologies that compose the Web3. The browser paves a significant path for the next Web our ecosystem is proudly building.

    Security-wise, making a browser (an app that loads untrusted code) that handles private keys is a challenging task. Over the course of the last year, we have had Cure53 conduct an extensive security audit of Mist, and vastly improved the security of both the Mist browser and the underlying platform, Electron. We’ve promptly fixed found security issues.

    But that is not enough. Security in the browser space is a never-ending battle. The Mist browser is based on Electron, which is based on Chromium. Each new Chromium release fixes numerous security issues.

    The layer between Mist and Chromium, Electron, is a project led by GitHub that aims to ease the creation of cross-platform applications using JavaScript. Recently, Electron hasn’t kept up to date with Chromium, leading to an increasing potential attack surface as time passes.

    A core problem with the current architecture is that any 0-day Chromium vulnerability is several patch-steps away from Mist: first Chromium needs to be patched, then Electron needs to update the Chromium version, and finally, Mist needs to update to the new Electron version.

    We’re examining how we could deal with Electron’s not-so-frequent release schedule, to reduce the gap between Chromium versions we use. From preliminary studies, Brave’s Muon (an Electron fork) follows Chromium updates closely and is one potential option. The Brave browser, which also contains a cryptocurrency wallet integration, has a similar threat-model and demands for security as Mist.

    An important reminder: Mist is still beta software, and you must treat it as such. The Mist Browser beta is provided on an “as is” and “as available” basis and there are no warranties of any kind, expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, warranties of merchantability or fitness of purpose. Quick security checklist:

    • Avoid keeping large quantities of ether or tokens in private keys on an online computer. Instead, use a hardware wallet, an offline device or a contract-based solution (preferably a mix of those).
    • Back up your private keys — Cloud services are not the best option to store it.
    • Do not visit untrusted websites with Mist.
    • Do not use Mist on untrusted networks.
    • Keep your day-to-day browser updated.
    • Keep track of your Operating System and anti-virus updates.
    • Learn how to verify file checksums (link).

    Lastly, we would like to thank the security researchers that worked hard on reproducing and making invaluable submissions through the Ethereum Bounty program.

    If you need further information, get in touch here: mist[at]ethereum dot org.

    [We’ll update this post as the situation evolves].

    @evertonfraga Mist Team

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release tester v0.1.0-beta.7

    Bump version: 0.1.0-beta.6 → 0.1.0-beta.7


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release pyethereum v2.3.0

    Bump version: 2.2.0 → 2.3.0


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Python - EVM v0.2.0-alpha.8

    Bump version: 0.2.0-alpha.7 → 0.2.0-alpha.8


  • Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programs

    The Ethereum community, key developers and researchers and others have always recognized scalability as perhaps the single most important key technical challenge that needs to be solved in order for blockchain applications to reach mass adoption. Blockchain scalability is difficult primarily because a typical blockchain design requires every node in the network to process every transaction, which limits the transaction processing capacity of the entire system to the capacity of a single node.

    There are two main paths to improving blockchain scalability. The first (“sharding”) involves creating better-designed base-layer blockchain protocols, which still maintain most of the desired decentralization and security properties of a blockchain that we see in the simple designs available today but only require a small percentage of nodes to see and process every transaction, allowing many more transactions to be processed in parallel at the same time. The second involves creating “layer 2” protocols that send most transactions off-chain and only interact with the underlying blockchain in order to enter and exit from the layer-2 system and in the case of attacks on the system.

    We view the two strategies as complementary with each other and we believe in supporting a multi-pronged strategy toward Ethereum scalability that engages both strategies and treats them as complementary with each other.

    Technical reading materials on Ethereum scalability technologies


    Examples of existing layer-2 systems:

    With the Ethereum blockchain reaching 1 million transactions per day, and both Ethereum and other blockchain projects frequently reaching their full transaction capacity, the need for scaling progress is becoming more and more clear and urgent. To that end, in addition to ongoing and upcoming work that is happening on scalability internally, we are starting two experimental subsidy schemes that we hope will empower more independent teams to collaborate with the Ethereum Research team’s base-layer scalability research and development efforts as well as building independent layer-2 projects that can tie into and improve Ethereum’s scalability.

    Independent teams of developers, companies, and university and academic groups are all welcome to apply; we recognize that different types of applicants may require different formats and processes and we are willing to be flexible to accommodate individual teams’ needs.

    Sharding client subsidy program

    Over the last few months, development on sharding has picked up quickly. A specification for an initial prototype is close to finalized, with a roadmap that allows it to be slowly introduced into Ethereum, first as a “loosely coupled” sidechain anchored into the Ethereum base chain through a “validator manager contract”, later introducing tighter and tighter integration with the Ethereum base chain over time. A reference implementation is being built in python on top of Py-EVM, and a testnet in python is not too far away.

    And in this next step, we want you to be involved. We want the Ethereum sharding testnet, and later sharding mainnet, to be a multi-client ecosystem right from the start, with the Ethereum Foundation not supporting any single privileged production implementation. The Ethereum Foundation-funded research team will continue to build an implementation in python and possibly other languages, but this is intended as a reference and proof of concept first and foremost. While we aim to continue to focus heavily on research and specification, we do not want to ultimately “win” the competition for which client gets the most actual users once the network goes live.

    Instead, the Ethereum Foundation will be making subsidies available to independent groups in the community that want to help build an implementation and participate in the sharding testnets and mainnet. These payments are NOT intended to be sources of substantial profit to recipient organizations; they are rather intended to cover some of the costs involved, with the understanding that anyone who participates in the scheme will have access to a unique opportunity to participate in Ethereum 2.0 development, with close collaboration with core Ethereum researchers, and be part of the development of one of the first clients that will be available when the sharding mainnet goes live.

    This will take the form of a specialized program, which will exist alongside more general grant program that the Foundation will release soon. Subsidy amounts of $50,000 up to $1,000,000 will be available, and possibly more for highly successful projects; the size of the subsidy will take into account the quality of the team, the scope of the proposed implementation, and the progress of the project over time. Participants will interact closely with the core research team, and will have a key role in shaping the final specification that gets developed over the course of implementing the spec and running the test networks.

    Layer-2 scalability solution subsidy program

    There has been a large number of independent proposals recently for how blockchains such as Ethereum can be scaled up through second-layer protocols. We recognize and appreciate that developers and researchers are excited about researching and implementing technologies in this area, and that many teams want the freedom to conceive and build out their own design that incorporates their own ideas. We want to offer an opportunity for such teams to exercise their creativity and build out their scalable blockchain proposals, all while staying within the Ethereum family.

    To that end, we are announcing a subsidy scheme for projects that are building scalability and latency-reducing “layer 2” platforms that live on top of Ethereum, benefitting from the Ethereum blockchain’s security as a base layer and interoperability with the greater Ethereum community and platform.

    Like the sharding client scheme, this will take the form of a specialized grant program, and subsidy amounts of $50,000 to $1,000,000 will be available depending on scope, scale and quality. The subsidy may be available even if the project has an independent business model, or funding from potential other sources in the Ethereum community, though we will prioritize funding projects that otherwise lack ability to sustain themselves, and it absolutely must be the case that the work funded is open source from end to end and provides a common good to the Ethereum ecosystem.

    Targets for funding include efforts at developing high-quality implementations of existing known layer-2 scaling strategies (eg. state channels, Plasma), as well as researching and developing new ones.

    Closing notes

    Both of these programs are in a very early stage, and grants will be initially decided at the discretion of Ethereum core leadership. Details, including the terms, conditions and schedules under which payments will be made may change as the result of our initial experience with program participants, and we expect the program to solidify and expand over the course of the year. 

    Note also that though the payments from these collaboration programs are much higher than those that we have made from our previous grant programs, these payments come with a much higher expectation of focus and quality. We are targeting skilled teams with either direct experience in the Ethereum or blockchain space, or experience in the broader fields of mechanism design, distributed systems or cryptography, as well as software engineering. The programs are also highly targeted at sharding clients and layer-2 scaling solutions; this is NOT a general-purpose grant program. That is still being developed, and details will be released as soon as they are ready.

    How to apply

    The first step is to send an email to [email protected], with the following information:

    • Official name of project, applicant and core developers
    • Further information on the team, including previous activity if any in the Ethereum or blockchain space or distributed systems, mechanism design or cryptography
    • Proposal and impact on scalability
    • Estimated timeline for development milestones and completion, request for grant amount and estimated total overall budget

    If we’re sufficiently interested, we’ll proceed from there with requests for further information.



    Vitalik Buterin

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release eth-tester v0.1.0-beta.11

    Bump version: 0.1.0-beta.10 → 0.1.0-beta.11


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Python - EVM v0.2.0-alpha.9

    Bump version: 0.2.0-alpha.8 → 0.2.0-alpha.9


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release eth-tester v0.1.0-beta.13

    Bump version: 0.1.0-beta.12 → 0.1.0-beta.13


  • Announcing Beneficiaries of the Ethereum Foundation Grants

    We’re excited to share the results of the first wave of grants from the Ethereum Foundation.

    As a reminder, the Ethereum project seeks to support useful dapps and smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, and the goal of the Ethereum Foundation is to empower developers with best-in-class R&D, developer experience, and education. Despite the early promise of the ecosystem, we still have a long way to go, and we are here to work with the community to drive concrete progress.

    These grants will fuel the teams working hard at research & development to support the entire ecosystem. Furthermore, we hope that these grants will signal to the community what we think are the missing pieces in the ecosystem that need more support. Said in another way, the Foundation is here to serve teams and individuals that are working to prevent a tragedy of the commons.

    This year, we will double down on working with the community to make Ethereum scalable, useful and secure. As such, although this grant program was announced two months ago as a strictly scalability-focused program, we decided to broaden the support to projects that are doing great work across scalability, usefulness and security. These projects have no ICOs, no token sales, and focus simply on building useful products and experiences.

    Scalability can be in the form of implementing sharding, plasma or state channels with existing teams or on your own. It can also be in the form of optimizing geth/parity or building alternate clients. Usefulness is for improving the developer experience (e.g. static analyzers, linters, dev frameworks, mobile SDKs, documentation, Solidity/Vyper development) or experimenting with new dapps that provide utility to the end user. Security can range from auditing existing contracts to providing tools that prevent error-prone programming patterns to contributing to alternative second-layer languages that focus on security.

    We are also beginning to engage with the design community to help solve product and UX design problems. For example, key management, Ethereum payments UX and onboarding flows are all areas that need major improvement for mainstream adoption. We would like to fund more design studies, hire, and connect talented designers with exciting teams in the space.

    Lastly, we would like to remind ourselves of how the Ethereum project began: passionate open-source developers contributing to the project on their spare time. In that spirit, we’ve begun a “hackternship” grant for community members that propose an impactful Ethereum side project.

    Awardee List

    Here are the inaugural Ethereum Foundation grant winners:

    L4 Research – Scalability Grant – $1.5M. State channels research. Runtime Verification – Security Grant – $500K. Casper contract formal verification. ETHGlobal – DevEx Grant* – $200K. World-class developer conferences for Ethereum Prysmatic Labs – Scalability Grant – $100K. Sharding implementation. DDA – #buidl Grant** – $100K. Tokenless decentralized derivatives network + state channels R&D Barcelona Supercomputing Center – Scalability Grant – $50K. Sharding simulation. Plasma Taiwan Dev – Scalability Grant – $25K. Plasma implementation. Ethers.js – DevEx Grant – $25K. Web3.js alternative. Turbo Geth – Scalability Grant – $25K. Geth optimization. Solium – DevEx Grant – $10K. Solidity static analyzer. Alex Komarov – Design Grant – $10K. Key management UX study (Anonymous) – Hackternship – $10K. Deterministic WebAssembly. Ankit Raj – Hackternship – $10K. Technical writing for Geth and Solidity.

    * DevEx Grant – Improves developer experience (“useful” for developers). ** #buidl Grant – Builds for the end user (“useful” for users).

    What we provide for teams that win a grant

    1. Non-dilutive funding
    2. Technical advisory
    3. Connection to more users
    4. Platform to share your work

    We hope to provide Ethereum teams with more runway, advice and resources to focus simply on building useful products and experiences.

    Also, many of these grants may be followed on with additional funding and/or collaboration when milestones are achieved. We believe this will provide tight feedback loops for impact to the ecosystem.

    Wishlist for future grants

    In future rounds of grants, we would like to see more applications in these areas:

    1. Scalability
      1. Alternate sharding implementations
      2. Alternate plasma implementations
      3. Improving efficiency of existing clients such as geth & parity
      4. A tokenless “Lightning Network” for Ethereum
    2. Usefulness
      1. UX design studies to improve private key management and transacting in Ethereum
      2. Alternative wallet / client designs
      3. Tooling that improves developer experience
      4. Improved documentation & developer/user education videos
    3. Security
      1. Security audits for Solidity and Vyper
      2. Smart contract audits
      3. Tooling that prevents vulnerable code
    4. “Hackternships”
      1. You have a job (or school)? No problem! Suggest a problem you want to solve and we’re happy to fund a 10-week $10K externship for your spare-time working on Ethereum. Successful projects will be featured at a developer conference. We are also looking to hire and fund from this pool of side projects.

    Next steps

    This is an ongoing grant program, and we’d like to invite the rest of the community to approach us with your ideas (application link).

    Ethereum is built by the community for the community, and we’re here to support you. Thank you for building!

    Best, Ethereum Foundation Team 3.7.18

  • Ethereum Release Mist Wallet v0.10.0


  • Announcing World Trade Francs: The Official Ethereum Stablecoin

    We have long recognized that in order for cryptocurrency to reach mass adoption, a form of cryptocurrency that has higher price stability
    than existing cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH would be needed so that
    people can use the currency to store funds and engage in commerce
    without worrying about their monthly salary dropping by 57% between the
    time they receive it and the time they can use the money to buy
    products. Unfortunately, we’ve found that the existing stablecoins all
    have various flaws; Tether is unauditable, Nubits has already once collapsed in price, Seignorage Shares is after three years still just a whitepaper
    and MakerDAO is an inadequate joke because…. reasons. As a result,
    we’ve decided to take matters into our own hands, and issue our own
    officially branded stablecoin, and use this as an opportunity to make
    another ICO.

    Introducing World Trade Francs.


    World Trade Francs is a decentralized 4.0 stablecoin based on next-generation blockchain technology. World Trade Francs strives to construct a free trade and economic interaction system, utilizing next-generation blockchain and hypercube tangle technology. The protocol allows each user to freely buy, sell and hold stable tokens. The issuance, circulation, and trading of WTF, though decentralized self-governance, lay the foundation for the distribution and subscription of economic value, thereby empowering content creators as well as forming a decentralized free trade and economic interaction ecosystem. The app partners of WTF protocol include Peiwo, Obike, Gifto, Uplive, with a total of 4 millions users, making WTF a blockchain protocol with the most DAPP users in the world.

    World Trade Francs will allow humanity to escape political oppression and achieve true individual self-sovereignty and global free trade, using permissionless global network, and a World Decentral Bank, which will be able to implement Perfect Monetary Policy that can allow the world to live together in harmony, all without any central points of censorship or control. By being decentralized, WTF will combine all benefits of capitalism and socialism with none of the downsides of either, creating a forward-thinking economic model for humanity in the twenty first century. Users will be able to hodl and trade WTF, the stablecoin, and FTW, the corresponding volatile coin that represents something economically equivalent to shares of future revenue from the WTF system, but technically a utility token because governments seem to really care about us falling on that side of the distinction for some reason.

    We have already started talking to sketchy Pacific island nations national governments about integrating use of World Trade Francs as a reserve currency for international agreements, and plan to soon become the first currency to be explicitly endorsed for use in an international treaty. The World Decentral Bank also includes a basic income mechanism where member nations can apply to join and receive a share of WTF issuance on condition that they distribute it to their citizens. The condition for qualifying as a nation is approval from 100,000 internet libertarians, and so we are proud to welcome Sealand, Catalonia, Texas, six provinces of India and China, Nationy McNationFace and Harambe among our initial batch of 1576 member nations. Price stability of the WTF will be ensured via Oracles.

    We strive to create a decentralized economy that allows everyone to freely buy, sell and hold stable tokens, without relying on centralized services. The legislative power will be transferred from an opaque centralized authority to transparent codes. Rules and platforms will be entirely transparent and based on faithfully executed smart contracts. By empowering the users, we will transform the economy on a global scale.

    Expected price trajectory

    Play with the Rubiks Cube simulator online! Drag the pieces with your mouse to unjumble the puzzle.



    Vitalik Buterin

  • Ethereum [ETH] Release Geth Dirty Derivative (v1.8.4)

    Geth Dirty Derivative (v1.8.4) is our biweekly maintenance release.

    Source code

  • Ethereum [ETH] Solidity Update:Version 0.4.23

    Bugfix release: In the previous release, it was possible to define two constructors (one using the new constructor-keyword syntax, another one with the old syntax) for a contract, but only one of them got used in the end. We also included other bugfixes.

    If you want to perform a source build, please only use solidity_0.4.23.tar.gz and not the zip provided by github directly.


    • Build system: Support Ubuntu Bionic.
    • SMTChecker: Integration with CVC4 SMT solver
    • Syntax Checker: Warn about functions named "constructor".


    • Type Checker: Improve error message for failed function overload resolution.
    • Type Checker: Do not complain about new-style constructor and fallback function to have the same name.
    • Type Checker: Detect multiple constructor declarations in the new syntax and old syntax.
    • Type Checker: Explicit conversion of bytesXX to contract is properly disallowed.

    We especially thank all our open source community contributors: Thomas Sauvajon

    Source code

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