Ethereum (ETH) - POW/POS - Ethash

  • The Swarm Team is pleased to announce the immediate release of Swarm client v0.3, the third proof-of-concept release (POC3) of the Ethereum Swarm client. The POC3 code is now merged into the official go-ethereum repository’s master branch.

    Swarm 0.3 has been deployed to the public Testnet, and the Ethereum Foundation is running a 50-node strong cluster of Swarm nodes together with a public web gateway on We welcome everyone to try it out or commit to operate stable nodes.

    The past year

    It has been a year and a half since the first release of the POC2 series was deployed and the Swarm project launched its public alpha network. Two Swarm summits, two orange papers and forty thousand lines of code later, it is time to take stock.

    In the past year the Swarm team has grown in size and is now on fire delivering the vision. We have been busy redesigning the network layer, rewriting the retrieval protocol using a stream abstraction, rewriting connectivity management and the overlay network code as well as developed a sophisticated network simulation framework to test algorithmic correctness, scalability and fault tolerance of various subsystems. POC3 code was finalised just in time for the Swarm Orange Summit in Ljubljana, where we had 80 participants and a very inspiring and creative week (watch this two-minute video hosted on Swarm) of talks and coding. It is inspiring to see a growing number of contributors and companies that want to build on swarm.

    Swarm 0.3

    Swarm content storage is a lot more than just “bittorrent on steroids”. The technical details can be found in the chapter on architecture in the new and improved Swarm guide. You’ll find a more thorough academic presentation of Swarm’s components in the orange papers or learn more about Swarm through the recorded conference talks.

    In an earlier blog post, we introduced the basics of Swarm storage and content distribution.

    At its core, Swarm is a service that provides APIs to upload and download content to the cloud and through URL-based addressing offers virtual hosting of websites and decentralised applications (dapps) without webservers, using decentralised peer-to-peer distributed infrastructure. The vision is that of a new internet which is not only fault-tolerant, has zero downtime and offers censorship resistance but is also economically self-sustaining due to a built-in incentive system. By compensating nodes for contributing their bandwidth and disk space, these incentives aim to achieve reliable low-latency scalable retrieval of popular content on the one hand and guarantees persistence of important yet rarely accessed data like archives or backups on the other. For smooth delivery Swarm will use the SWAP protocol (planned for POC3.1) while for storage guarantees it will use a two-tiered insurance system (planned for POC4).

    Beyond the basics of data storage and delivery, the POC 3 release includes some new and experimental features.

    The online Windows XP simulator runs in a web browser and its operation imitates the operating system. You can use it to prank someone.


    The same p2p connections that are used for data storage and delivery can also be used for node-to-node messaging. PSS combines Swarm routing (bzz) with the Whisper (shh) encrypted message format (bzz+shh=pss). In short, PSS is a messaging protocol with strong privacy features running on top of the Swarm network. This messaging infrastructure can be the foundation of a whole new system of internode communication services (the email, tweet, newsletter of the future), hence, can be referred to as Postal Service over Swarm.

    PSS is fully featured yet experimental on the new POC3 network and dapps can interact with it using a JSON RPC API. We are collaborating closely with companies and projects that want to use pss to build second-layer infrastructure. Mainframe is building a slack-alternative collaborative group communications tool (Onyx) and their web3 SDK, and Status have expressed interest in building it into their mobile chat.


    Another experimental new feature in POC3 is the Swarm Mutable Resource. Typical in p2p storage systems, content is addressed by its digital fingerprint (hash) and any changes to the content results in a change of this address. Users of the web, however, are accustomed to mutable resources: when visiting URLs we expect to see the most up-to-date version of the ‘site’. In order to make it easy to access changing content at permanent human-readable addresses, Swarm integrates with the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) on the Ethereum blockchain. This is what allows us to reference Swarm content by names like bzz://theswarm.eth.

    Swarm POC3 adds another layer in the form of Mutable Resource Updates (MRU). These allow off-chain updates of content associated with an address at a potentially faster pace than ENS updates on the blockchain could support and without incurring the cost of on-chain transactions.

    MRU is an experimental feature in current POC3 testnet and is still undergoing changes.

    FUSE support

    FUSE enables users to integrate Swarm data directly into their local file systems (only on Linux and Mac). Using this system, users can “mount a Swarm manifest” as if it were a regular directory. It supports file system read and write operations, in which all content is automatically synced with the Swarm. In future, combining FUSE with Swarm Mutable Resources, it should be possible, for example, to sync your entire home folder between devices - the backend to a decentralised storage with a Dropbox-like functionality.

    Encryption support

    Swarm 0.3 comes with built-in encryption allowing for secure uploads of private data. The way encryption works users can upload a directory privately and still ‘share’ a subdirectory with specific peers.

    Access Control Trees (Swarm 0.3.2) will offer an API for users to manage access to content independently of publishing it. Granted access will work across versions of resources.

    The year ahead

    The year ahead will be both exciting and challenging. As part of the POC3 series we are planning to switch on a revamped SWAP accounting system (Swarm 0.3.1) and enable ‘light’ Swarm nodes (Swarm 0.3.2). Implementing erasure coding, proof of custody, insurance are also on the roadmap. We are on target delivering Swarm POC4 (production beta prerelease) in 2019.

    We keep on building a community with our allies who champion the values of web3 and actively collaborate through working groups, building the foundational infrastructure, the backbone of second-layer services such as databases (, private data management (, rights and creative works licensing (, decentralised version control (ethergit,, video transcoding and streaming service (, communication and collaboration ( and the list is growing.

    Contact Us

    We welcome your feedback and contribution. Come find us in our gitter channelgithub repository.

    the Swarm team

    Contact Us

    We welcome your feedback and contribution. Come find us in our gitter channelgithub repository.

    the Swarm team

    the Swarm team

  • Tether (USDT) Brings Another 250 Million, Funds Flow into Ethereum

  • Ethereum Release  Wallet and Mist Beta 0.11.0

    The Mist team has been working hard on a solution to balance decentralization with user experience.

    While running a full node is important to the health of the network, we all know the weight of doing so on a consumer machine. Amazing services, like Infura, can help you get connected immediately but introduces new risks.

    From the beginning, Ethereum Wallet and Mist beta have prioritized running a local ethereum node, helping relay blocks and keep the pulse of the ethereum blockchain worldwide.

    Today, we are introducing a hybrid solution that brings the swiftness of Infura with the power and security of running your own Geth node. After connecting immediately to a remote node, your local node takes over all subscriptions and filters once it's up to date.


  • Devcon4 Application Deadlines Coming Soon

    Přátelé. Just a quick update today!

    Applications for sponsorships, scholarships, student discounts and builder discounts will be up until 11:59PM PST on July 24th.

    After that, there will no longer be a way to submit an application for these tracks. Please note that if you’ve already submitted an application or do so before the deadline, it will be processed and responded to by the Devcon team in short order!

    As we continue to work toward providing everyone an opportunity to attend Devcon, we’re capping applications in preparation for future waves and to give the general public the chance to join us!

    We look forward to receiving your applications soon, and to seeing you in Prague!


  • Ethereum Release  Wallet and Mist Beta 0.11.1 - windows hotfix

    We've identified an interface bug on Windows versions of Mist Browser and Ethereum Wallet v0.11.0 releases, leading to a blank screen after startup. This release fixes it.

    Checksum (SHA256) Ethereum-Wallet-installer-0-11-1.exe710df0a526f5a8c5c0eb47b303a629d20641d9d3bf1740520e71907d269b3cf8Ethereum-Wallet-linux32-0-11-1.deb83ad28b07e293e50d08323613945745db715d14482756f53ed1e04e72873cd6fEthereum-Wallet-linux32-0-11-1.zipf2a4f69949d1bf589cd5223a07e3e5679cf6c03dabe1d3dc12ce3b9191778a68Ethereum-Wallet-linux64-0-11-1.deb1abca9b43983e63df3514307fa4317baa7e9604e64136263fd44544d03a12c6dEthereum-Wallet-linux64-0-11-1.zip0337b285e8e9a6a3d9073bce73d2b89b5a13972575fdb0641a1426710eeb333bEthereum-Wallet-macosx-0-11-1.dmgdf52a7ad6519aa92d17a743d0cb3bcf3080c2c72e31b1a58fbfa4581069dc4c8Ethereum-Wallet-win32-0-11-1.zip16a058474bab496ea37537335d27d664de88ec6fe7292238d9d48c4d9b841b08Ethereum-Wallet-win64-0-11-1.zipc78c48d50acbff1b7442f473854f6ae88245e5b4f057164211f8b63d17d5c65eMist-installer-0-11-1.exea2aec395019f2b05b3d0a245845868f425e4bc9d0407f0c415d96edf19b691a2Mist-linux32-0-11-1.deba0650f1e53abf557f5004715b06ae90c1f9e041b7037ba4259d9b0a68bdf7b00Mist-linux32-0-11-1.zip473e50b13620c86d420faabf86170ba5e9312575c9dc7f4b1bdc3ca054badfb9Mist-linux64-0-11-1.debd094face5b1baf97fff64ae6d7b5d710e2d0243d59250feceba49da5ef0c9fa9Mist-linux64-0-11-1.zipe3b3225869b7f1500c6be9d469bb481375fc3e22712a9da047663e44c5e9a47bMist-macosx-0-11-1.dmg2d18b86667c4daf690cfda327550d428f7efd09b6057b73456a71d2990c7efd1Mist-win32-0-11-1.zip7a54ac3552ebd8631ff6b4757da8d0d9944120188690a6557d4c2be7a640c704 Mist-win64-0-11-1.zip2222f23bbfd216160a9b16efd8ac5c0fb2db3d1cfb59302445c752baddec483d

    Source Code:

  • Devcon4 Call for Participation!

    When we asked many of you, “What are you most excited for at Devcon4?” most people replied: the people! This is the one time a year we all get together in one place. We don’t want to spend all of our time at Devcon sitting in a dark room, staring in silence at a person on a stage – we want to see, meet and talk with each other.

    In that spirit, we’re designing the programming and environment of Devcon4 to provide the time and space for all of us to make new connections – between people and ideas. This is a chance for us to ask each other the most important questions and dive deep into the toughest challenges (and exciting opportunities!) facing Ethereum today.

    So we’re going to experiment with more participatory programming at Devcon4 this year!

    Here are three ways you can apply to participate in Devcon4:

    • Give a presentation: This is self-explanatory. ;) Give a 5-minute lightning talk or a 20-minute presentation on the topic of your choice.
    • Lead a workshop: Teach people to do something. Over the course of 2 hours, participants should “get their hands dirty,” whether writing code or learning to tell stories.
    • Host a breakout room: Be creative and come up with your own programming for Devcon4! Host dapp design critiques, facilitate a conversation, do live security reviews, [enter your awesome idea here]

    When you apply, we ask that you connect your session to one of six core themes:

    • Scalability: How can we scale Ethereum in a secure, decentralized, and trustless manner in order to achieve mass adoption?
    • Security: How can we ensure the safety of user data and funds?
    • Privacy: How can we empower users to be in control of their own data?
    • Developer Experience: How can we make developing for Ethereum simple, extensible, and fun?
    • UX & Design: How can we create a more intuitive, usable and delightful experience for our users?
    • Society & Systems: Why do we BUIDL? How will this technology change our societal systems, and the people within them? (To be clear: this is also a bit of a “catch all” theme for governance, cryptoeconomics, social impact, memes, etc.)

    If you want to talk about your specific dapp or protocol, please do so in the context of one of these shared topics. How have you identified or solved a common problem? How can your work benefit the rest of our community?

    With ~3000 participants and only so much time, we expect applications for participation to be highly competitive this year. Please buy your tickets ahead of time in the chance that your submission isn’t accepted so that you don’t miss out on getting a ticket to Devcon4! We will process a refund for anyone who purchases a ticket and then qualifies for a complimentary pass.

    Please help us create a Devcon4 experience in the spirit of these values:

    • Participatory: We are all creating the Ethereum ecosystem together and Devcon4 should reflect that. In addition to educational talks, Devcon4 should provide opportunities for participants to contribute to the broader conversation and share information with one another.
    • Educational: As the only EF-hosted event, Devcon4 is a chance for our community to learn directly from the leaders of the Ethereum ecosystem. Participants should learn things they couldn’t learn anywhere else.
    • Fun: The number one reason why people come to Devcon is to see one another! Let’s create a uniquely “Ethereum” family reunion for our community.

    Visit to learn more and apply!

    –dc⟠ıv team

  • Ethereum Foundation Grants Update - Wave 3

    Ethereum Logo Image

    Ethereum Foundation Grants Update

    We’ve been hard at work getting to know so many amazing people and projects, and are extremely excited to announce the recipients of the Wave 3 of the Ethereum Foundation Grants Program!

    We kicked off 2018 with a blog post to galvanize scalability research for first and second-layer solutions. Since then, we’ve committed over $11M to 52 projects dedicated to advancing the Ethereum ecosystem. Grants have funded multiple plasma and state channel implementations, diverse client research, enhanced developer frameworks, security audits, and so much more (find them all in the previous posts: Wave 1 & Wave 2)!

    A Look into the Selection Process

    Since the Grants Program has picked up, we’ve received feedback requesting greater transparency into our processes and a deeper look into the various types of projects considered. Here’s a funding snapshot and grant process update:

    Funding Snapshot

    The EF Grant Program provided more than $11M in support to 52 projects since early 2018 (Waves 1, 2, and 3).

    Grants Charts

    Our funding allocation remains true to the program’s original purpose, awarding nearly $7M to scalability projects. After this, security has been granted almost $2M, #buidl projects (projects that improve user experience) received $1.6M, and DevEx projects (projects that improve developer experience) received $744K. While dollar allocation remains heavily focused on scalability, the number of projects funded are more evenly distributed between categories.

    Grants Process Update

    The EF Grants program is constantly evolving. With this round, we’ve refined our internal processes to ensure timely fund disbursement. We understand how quickly the space moves and believe in the importance of expedient fund dispersal to the front line. Eventually, we aim to award grants on a rolling basis in order to provide more immediate support to the projects and teams leading the charge for decentralization and transparency.

    Ideal applicants come with strong technical knowledge, project roadmap, and show a commitment to fostering collaboration within the ecosystem. For more information about applicant expectations and process workflow, please see our Applicant Expectations and FAQs.

    Wave 3

    With each round, the grants program evolves. Our goal is to effectively grease the wheels for projects building the critical infrastructure of our young community. There are many tracks to lay down before Ethereum “makes it” and it’s been incredible to see all the projects working to lay down these tracks.

    The applicant pool for Wave 3 offered a record number of strong teams and innovative ideas. It’s fascinating and humbling to see the diversity of projects from around the world with a shared interest in fostering the development of Ethereum. These are folks spending their free time reading, developing new libraries and wallet designs, and engaging in communities discussing the latest in DApp usability and security…and we love them for that.

    Without further ado…

    🎉 We are proud to announce our Wave 3 Finalists! 🎉


    StarkWare – $4M with 6K ETH Performance-based Bounties. Development of standards report and production-quality software for optimized STARK-friendly hash functions and tooling

    Force Move Game Framework – $300K. Force move games state channel framework

    Harmony – $90K. Minimal sharding and random beacon chain


    Kestrel Institute – $400K. Formal verification of cryptographic primitives

    ICE Center at ETH Zurich – $185K. ICE Center research and tooling development

    Pyramid – $30K. Smart contract language


    Developer experience (DevEx grant)

    Yakindu IDE – $95K. Eclipse-based IDE

    Solidity Resolver Engine – $50K. Universal API tool

    Etheratom – $45K. Atomized solidity IDE

    Building for the end user (#buidl grant)

    DappNode – $250K. Mass full node adoption

    Uniswap – $100k. DEX framework

    Nethermind – $50K. .NET client implementation

    thaEth – $20K. Gnosis Safe UI Design

    Education – $35K. Buidling a textbook and coursework


    Pseudo-randomly selected committees – $10K. Sharding R&D

    Etherlinker – $10K. Unreal Engine 4 API for Ethereum

    Scalability will continue to be a focus of EF grants, but we also look to fund other critical work. This includes better UX, new clients, high-level languages, better developer tools, and efforts to make Ethereum applications more secure. With Wave 3, we expanded into education and community efforts in order to help bring new talent into the ecosystem.

    Want to #BUIDL with us? See the dev wishlist below and follow links to learn more. If you can imagine a project relating to the topics listed, submit an application and talk to us!

    Wishlist for the next grant round

    1. Scalability

    2. More payment and/or state channel implementations 💚💙💜

    3. More plasma implementations 💚💙

    4. More shasper implementations 🔥

    5. Improving efficiency of existing clients such as geth & parity 💚💙

    6. A tokenless “Lightning Network” for Ethereum 💙

    7. WebAssembly R&D 🔥

    8. STARKS R&D 🔥

    9. BLS12-381 implementations in new languages 🔥

    10. libp2p Python implementation 🔥

    11. Usability

    12. Improve private key management and transacting in Ethereum 💚💙

    13. Alternative wallet / client designs 💙💜

    14. Standards and portability between wallets 💙

    15. Tooling that improves developer experience 💚💙💜

    16. Improved documentation & developer/user education videos 💚💙💜

    17. Tokenless end user products 💜

    18. Vyper development 💜

    19. More security focused high-level languages 💜

    20. Solidity interpreter 🔥

    21. Non-transferable ID tokens 🔥

    22. Security

    23. Security audits for Solidity and Vyper 💙💜

    24. Smart contract audits 💚💜

    25. Specifically, audits for ERC20, ERC223, ERC721, multisig wallets, vaults 💜

    26. Tooling that prevents vulnerable code 💚💙💜

    27. IDE with a visual debugger 🔥

    28. Privacy Solutions

    29. Hackternships

    30. You already have a job (or school)? No problem! Suggest a problem you want to solve and we’re happy to fund a 10-week $10K externship for your spare-time working on Ethereum. 💚💙💜(Successful projects will be featured at a developer conference. We are also looking to hire and fund from this pool of side projects. If you’re looking for where to start, look at the list above.)

    💚– Wave 1\ 💙– Wave 2\ 💜– Wave 3\ 🔥– New to wishlist


    For more inspiration…

    Read the original DevGrant post.

    Read the post that kicked off the current program.

    Find the grantees from Wave 1 and Wave 2.

    Keep up to date with research here and here.

    Grant Ops Contest!

    With the growing number of applicants, we’ll be needing to create an official website for the Grants Program. Do you have any ideas on how to make the website fun, transparent, and useful to future grant applicants? (mmhmm) Great! Because we will be running a contest and crowdsourcing ideas from all of you. Selected ideas will receive some unicorn love and some ETH. Stay tuned for details on how to participate!

  • Solidity Bugfix Release

    The latest version 0.4.25 release of Solidity fixes two important bugs. Another important bug has already been fixed in version 0.4.22 but it was only discovered recently that the bug existed.

    Note that the Ethereum Foundation runs a bounty program for the code generator part of Solidity.

    Cleanup of Exponent in Exponentiation

    • Likelihood of occurrence: very low
    • Exploitability: high
    • Discoverability by tests: low
    • Fixed in version: 0.4.25

    Summary: Using short types in the exponent of an exponentiation operation can lead to invalid results.

    The Solidity language allows integer types that are shorter than 256 bits, even though the Ethereum Virtual Machine only knows types of exactly 256 bits. Because of that, higher order bits need to be set to zero from time to time. For many operations, it is not relevant whether those bits are set to zero or not (addition is one example). Because of that, the Solidity compiler delays this cleanup until it is needed in order to save gas.

    In the very special circumstance that the exponent of the ** operator has a type that is shorter than 256 bits, but not shorter than the type of the base and contains dirty higher order bits, this can lead to an incorrect result. Note that literal exponents like in x ** 2 as well as the case where the type of the base is uint256 or int256 are unaffected.

    Note that a function parameter can have dirty higher order bits if called by a malicious entity, and the same is true for data returned from functions of contracts deployed by malicious entities.

    After having screened a large number of contracts, we deem this bug to affect only a very tiny number of smart contracts, if any at all, because the regular uses of the exponentiation operator do not lead to the bug.

    This bug was found by nweller.

    Memory Corruption in Multi-Dimensional Array Decoder

    • Likelihood of occurrence: low
    • Exploitability: medium
    • Discoverability by tests: high
    • Introduced in version: 0.1.4
    • Fixed in version: 0.4.22

    Summary: Calling functions of other contracts that return multi-dimensional fixed-size arrays results in memory corruption.

    If Solidity code calls a function that returns a multi-dimensional fixed-size array, the returned ABI-encoded data has to be converted to Solidity’s internal representation of arrays. In Solidity, multi-dimensional arrays are implemented as arrays of memory pointers, while in the ABI, the data is encoded inline. The decoder did not take this difference into account with the result that the returned elements are interpreted as memory pointers and thus can cause memory corruption if the return values are accessed. Calling functions with multi-dimensional fixed-size array arguments is unaffected as is returning fixed-size arrays from function calls if they are not used in a Solidity contract. The bug is only in the component that decodes a multi-dimensional fixed-size array that is returned from a function call from Solidity.

    This bug was found by jmahhh.

    Invalid Encoding of Structs in Events

    • Likelihood of occurrence: low
    • Exploitability: low
    • Discoverability by tests: high
    • Introduced in version: 0.4.17
    • Fixed in version: 0.4.25

    Summary: Structs as event parameters are not handled properly.

    Structs were not meant to be supported as event parameters without the new ABI encoder. The compiler did accept them nevertheless, but encoded their memory address instead of their actual value. Even with the new ABI encoder, structs cannot be indexed event parameters.

    Now, structs are properly disallowed for the old encoder and if they are indexed also for the new encoder.

  • Ethereum Foundation Grants Update - Wave IV

    Greetings from the Ethereum Foundation Grants Team!

    As we go full steam ahead to Devcon 4, we’re back to announce Wave 4 of the Grants Program! Thank you to all the fantastic community members that have applied with creative ideas on how to bolster our ecosystem. We would not exist without the time and energy that you put into Ethereum. While the program continues to grow, we will increasingly continue to involve more community members in the decision making process. The Grants Program today is vastly improved from just earlier this year, thanks to all the helpful feedback from the community, allowing us to provide better public tools and infrastructure.

    If you haven’t heard of us before, our last announcement went into some depth on program history, funding summary, and processes. Find that post here, and you can see guidelines and more here.

    Without further ado…

    We are proud to announce our Wave 4 Grantees! 🎉


    • Non-Custodial Payment Channel Hub – $420K. Payment upon delivery for the open source SDK release built by Spankchain, Kyokan, and Connext at Devcon 4
    • Prototypal – $375K. Front-end state channel research and development.
    • Finality Labs – $250K. Development of Forward-Time Locked Contracts (FTLC).
    • Kyokan – $125K. Development of production ready mainnet Plasma Cash & Debit plugins.
    • Atomic Cross-Chain Transactions – $65K. Research led by Maurice Herlihy of Brown University.
    • EthSnarks – $40K. Development of a cross-compatible SDK for zkSNARKS to be viable on Ethereum.


    • Flintstones – $120K. Further development of the Flint Language including a security focused IDE by Susan Eisenbach of Imperial College London.

    Usability (DevEx)

    • TrueBlocks – $120K. Open source block explorer.
    • Gitcoin – $100K. Funding bounties on Gitcoin.
    • VulcanizeDB – $75K. “Community sourced” block explorer.
    • Buidler – $50K. Development of modular alternative to Truffle based on Ethers.js.
    • Ethdoc – $25K. Open source tool for organization and interaction of smart contract codebases.
    • Ethers.js – $25K. Support for ricmoo to continue development and maintenance of Ethers.js.
    • Kauri – $25K. Funding documentation bounties on Kauri.


    • Magic Money Tree (Dark Crystal) – $50K. Tool for securely storing and recovering keys and secrets through a multisig design by the Secure Scuttlebutt Team.


    • Elizabeth Binks – $10K. Ring signature implementation with nine or more keys.
    • Lindsey Gray – $10K. Development of C++ BLS-381 implementation.

    Client Diversity

    Want to #BUIDL with us? See the dev wishlist below and follow links to learn more. If you can imagine a project relating to the topics listed, submit an application and talk to us!



    1. More payment and/or state channel implementations 💚💙💜
    2. More plasma implementations 💚💙
    3. Improving efficiency of existing clients such as geth & parity 💚💙
    4. A tokenless “Lightning Network” for Ethereum 💙
    5. WebAssembly R&D 🔥
    6. libp2p Python implementation 🔥
    7. Plasma Cash implementations for fungible tokens utilizing defragmentation techniques found here and here 🔥
    8. Academic analysis of Casper 🔥

    The free online JavaScript beutifier organizes your scripts. Use it every time before publishing codes.


    1. STARKS R&D 🔥
    2. BLS12-381 implementations in new languages 🔥


    1. Improve private key management and transacting in Ethereum 💚💙💛
    2. Alternative wallet / client designs 💙💜
    3. Standards and portability between wallets 💙
    4. Tooling that improves developer experience 💚💙💜💛
    5. Improved documentation & developer/user education videos 💚💙💜💛
    6. Tokenless end user products 💜
    7. Vyper development 💜
    8. More security focused high-level languages 💜
    9. Non-transferable ID tokens 🔥
    10. Establishing a spec and cross client test suite for the JSON-RPC API 🔥
    11. Analysis of and analytics for real world Ethereum transactions (application usage, gas / opcode usage, missed avenues for optimization, etc) 🔥
    12. Tooling that source-verifies contracts client-side, makes use of the metadata hash and shows NatSpec comments to the user for use in wallets 🔥


    1. Security audits for Vyper 💙💜
    2. Smart contract audits 💚💜
    3. Particularly, audits for ERC20, ERC223, ERC721, multisig wallets, vaults 💜
    4. Tooling that prevents vulnerable code 💚💙💜
    5. IDE with a visual debugger 🔥
    6. Privacy Solutions 🔥
    7. More in-depth network monitoring tools 🔥


    1. Community groups and conferences for underrepresented and underserved communities 🔥
    2. Translation of research, documentation, and specs into other languages 🔥


    You already have a job (or school)? No problem! Suggest a problem you want to solve and we’re happy to fund a 10-week $10K externship for your spare-time working on Ethereum. 💚💙💜💛(Successful projects will be featured at a developer conference. We are also looking to hire and fund from this pool of side projects. If you’re looking for where to start, look at the list above.)

    💚 – Wave I / 💙 – Wave II / 💜 – Wave III / 💛– Wave IV / 🔥 – New to wishlist


    For more inspiration…

    Keep up to date with research here and here.

  • How the Ethereum Foundation grants program makes decisions

    Our goal on the grants team is to be faithful stewards of Ethereum community resources. As part of the Ethereum Foundation’s ongoing effort to diffuse power throughout our community, we give grants that we believe will return the highest impact on the Ethereum ecosystem over the long-term.

    What is the scope of EF grants?

    • Open source!

    • Funding is only for future work

    • Avoid playing favorites.  We try not to advantage one team over others

    • Avoid grants at the application layer, though we do believe that projects and teams working at the application layer should apply when they are building open source tools applicable to the wider ecosystem

    • Avoid giving an Ethereum Foundation “stamp of approval.”  EF Grants are not intended to be an endorsement of a particular project over others.

    How do we evaluate applications?

    • We think about highest impact by asking ourselves:

      • how important would this be to the ecosystem?
      • how urgent is the problem?
      • how many other people are working on this problem?
      • how much value do we get by giving a grant compared to doing nothing?
    • We are favorably biased towards projects with reasonable paths towards sustainability.  This helps ensure a long-term impact on the investment of community resources.

    • We look for applicants with relevant experience or proven ability to execute, commensurate with the grant amount

    • Alignment with Ethereum values

    Note: because we are offering non-dilutive capital, we expect to pay a discount on your market rate

    We realize that our decision making process will never be perfect, but we always do our best to continually improve the speed and quality of the decision making process.

    Posted by Ethereum Team

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release solidity Version 0.5.1

    This release improves the usability of interfaces, fixes some bugs, extends the SMT checker and provides an early preview of the Yul optimizer.

    If you want to perform a source build, please only use solidity_0.5.1.tar.gz and not the zip provided by github directly.

    Language Features:

    • Allow mapping type for parameters and return variables of public and external library functions.
    • Allow public functions to override external functions.

    Compiler Features:

    • Code generator: Do not perform redundant double cleanup on unsigned integers when loading from calldata.
    • Commandline interface: Experimental --optimize option for assembly mode (--strict-assembly and --yul).
    • SMTChecker: SMTLib2 queries and responses passed via standard JSON compiler interface.
    • SMTChecker: Support msg, tx and block member variables.
    • SMTChecker: Support gasleft() and blockhash() functions.
    • SMTChecker: Support internal bound function calls.
    • Yul: Support Yul objects in --assemble, --strict-assembly and --yul commandline options.


    • Assembly output: Do not mix in/out jump annotations with arguments.
    • Commandline interface: Fix crash when using --ast on empty runtime code.
    • Code Generator: Annotate jump from calldata decoder to function as "jump in".
    • Code Generator: Fix internal error related to state variables of function type access via base contract name.
    • Optimizer: Fix nondeterminism bug related to the boost version and constants representation. The bug only resulted in less optimal but still correct code because the generated routine is always verified to be correct.
    • Type Checker: Properly detect different return types when overriding an external interface function with a public contract function.
    • Type Checker: Disallow struct return types for getters of public state variables unless the new ABI encoder is active.
    • Type Checker: Fix internal compiler error when a field of a struct used as a parameter in a function type has a non-existent type.
    • Type Checker: Disallow functions sha3 and suicide also without a function call.
    • Type Checker: Fix internal compiler error with super when base contract function is not implemented.
    • Type Checker: Fixed internal error when trying to create abstract contract in some cases.
    • Type Checker: Fixed internal error related to double declaration of events.
    • Type Checker: Disallow inline arrays of mapping type.
    • Type Checker: Consider abstract function to be implemented by public state variable.

    Build System:

    • CMake: LLL is not built anymore by default. Must configure it with CMake as -DLLL=ON.
    • Docker: Includes both Scratch and Alpine images.
    • Emscripten: Upgrade to Emscripten SDK 1.37.21 and boost 1.67.


    • Fix handling of standard-json in the commandline executable.
    • Remove support of nodejs 4.

    We especially thank all the contributors that made this release possible:

    Albert, Alex Beregszaszi, Anurag Dashputre, Chris Purta, Christian Parpart, Chris Ward, Daniel Kirchner, David Lozano Jarque, Erik Kundt, hydai, Javier Tarazaga, Justin Wilson, Lazaridis, Leonardo Alt, liangdzou, mordax, Robert Chung, William Entriken, Yet another codejunkie

    Source Code:

  • Ethereum (ETH) Weekly News Updates

    News and Links

    Layer 1

    • [Eth 1] Notes from the call on improving the current Ethereum chain
    • [Eth 2] The latest What’s New in Eth2
    • [Eth 2] Notes from latest Eth2 implementers call
    • [Eth 2] Nimbus dev update
    • [Eth 2] Eric Conner’s Eth2.0 economic primer
    • [Eth 2] Vitalik: layer 2 computing model using optimistic state rootsELI5 version. Big if it works.
    • [CBC Casper] Latest Casper standup call
    • [CBC Casper] CBC Casper explanation by Vitalik

    Layer 2

    • Latest state channels call
    • Explainer video for Raiden Network
    • Minimum number of rounds required for plasma cash with rearrangeable transactions

    Stuff for developers

    • Solidity v0.5.1 “improves the usability of interfaces, fixes some bugs, extends the SMT checker and provides an early preview of the Yul optimizer”
    • Embark 4.0.0-alpha.2
    • web3j v4 out of alpha and in general relelase
    • Rocketh test library with any web3 library and test runner
    • Aragon: cheaper voting through EVM storage proofs
    • dappboard: load chain data into PostgreSQL to analyze
    • Securify academic paper
    • An IPFS for devs explainer from Piñata
    • a URL shortener live on Ropsten
    • Using the iExec SDK
    • How to use Quiknode to quickly start a dedicated node
    • 0x Instant react.js component
    • RuntimeVerification formally verifies the beacon chain in COQ and models RanDAO


    • ConsenSys reorg from 1.0 to 2.013% layoffs.
    • Alethio’s block explorerlinked data graph
    • Curious Giraffe has some nice dapp analytics for Compound, Augur, ENS, etheroll, Kyber, AirSwap, and Cryptokitties.
    • In 2019, Gnosis will give away up to 600k USD to build on Gnosis products through its ecosystem fund
    • A list of Ethereum community calls from Trenton Van Epps
    • More on AZTEC Protocol’s confidential transactions. Plus costs would go down to 200-300k gas with eip1108

    Live on mainnet

    • Gnosis’ is live on mainnet; it builds on the DutchX protocol by Gnosis
    • Havven launches stablecoins for EUR, JPY, AUD, KRW, and gold.
    • FOAM Signaling live on mainnet


    • SignatureBank to offer commercial clients 24/7 money transfer for free using a private Ethereum chain

    Governance and Standards

    • Latest core devs callnotes. Fork will be around Jan 16th. Working group updates. Dropping Ropsten/PoW testnets forever?
    • ERC1633: Refungible token standard
    • ERC1638: Gift vault standard

    Application layer

    • 0x Instantideas to explore with 0x.
    • dy/dx’s Antonio Juliano tweetstorm on state of 0x
    • Cyrus Younessi’s overview of Uniswap Exchange
    • A new and slick version of Maker Tools
    • Status v0.9.32 with private group chats
    • Funfair product update
    • Imbrex open sources its real estate data exchange called Tegula
    • OpenLaw and Rhombus build onchain derivatives
    • 3Box spins out from uPort
    • Livepeer’s Streamflow upgrade proposal with probabilistic micropayments

    Interviews, Podcasts, Videos, Talks

    • AZTEC Protocol’s Zach Williamson on Smartest Contract
    • Video of local news report on Blockchains LLC fiber optic ring
    • Curation markets community call
    • John Lilic video interview
    • Intro to Scaling on Into the Ether
    • Numerai/Erasure’s Richard Craib AMA

    Tokens / Business / Regulation

    • Richard Craib on redesigning Numerai. Cutting supply by half, making it more useful with Erasure, and decentalizing it.
    • Bonded curves for charity
    • Brian Armstrong: adoption of cryptoassets will come through VR
    • Video of NYT’s Sorkin interviews SEC Chairman Clayton


    • Zaki Manian’s Cosmos and Polkadot comparison
    • NEAR’s Alex Skidanov: Core ideas in blockchain sharding
    • Update on ETC<>ETH peace relay
    • Coinbase filed to trademark buidl, though Balaji pledges it will only be defensive.

    Dates of Note

    Upcoming dates of note (new in bold):

    • Dec 9 - Neufund equity token offering (closes after a week)
    • Jan 10 - Mobi Grand Challenge hackathon ends
    • Jan ~16 - Constantinople hard fork at block 7080000
    • Jan 29-30 - AraCon (Berlin)
    • Feb 7-8 - Melonport’s M1 conf (Zug)
    • Feb 15-17 - ETHDenver hackathon (ETHGlobal) next hacker application round closes December 31st
    • Feb 23-25 - EthAustin hackathon (EthUniversal)
    • Mar 5-7 - EthCC (Paris)
    • Mar 27 - Infura end of legacy key support (Jan 23 begins Project ID prioritization)

    If you appreciate this newsletter, thank ConsenSys

    This newsletter is made possible by ConsenSys.


    I own Week In Ethereum. Editorial control has always been 100% me.  If you’re unhappy with editorial decisions or anything that I have written in this issue, feel free to tweet at me. [Although I can’t answer right now to due to censorship, see below.]

    Capricious Twitter censorship

    One of my best friends launched StoopAndroid/iOS newsletter reader. It uses a dedicated email and clean design experience to keep your information diet healthy. If you subscribe to newsletters, you will like it.

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    I’m sure that I missed things for this newsletter due to Twitter’s banhammer. Sorry!

    Due to Twitter censorship, I won’t be able to tweet this link:

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