Ethereum (ETH) - POW/POS - Ethash

  • Ethereum (ETH) Casper Version 1 Implementation Guide


    In this proposed spec for stage 1 Casper, Ethereum will transition from pure proof of work to hybrid PoW/PoS. In this scheme, all of the proof of work mechanics will continue to exist, but additional proof of stake mechanics will be added, and the fork choice rule (ie. the way that a client determines which chain is "the canonical chain") will be modified to take these mechanics into account.

    A "Casper contract" will be published at some address CASPER_ADDR, and this contract will include functionality that allows anyone to deposit their ether, specifying a piece of "validation code" (think of this as being kind of like a public key) that they will use to sign messages, and become a validator. Once a user is inducted into the active validator pool, they will be able to send messages to participate in the PoS consensus process. The "size" of a validator in the active validator pool refers to the amount of ether that they deposited.

    The purpose of the PoS consensus process is to "finalize" key blocks called "checkpoints". Every 100th block is a checkpoint. In order for a block to be finalized, a subset of validators in the active validator pool with total size of at least two thirds the total size of the active validator pool need to send "commit" messages for that checkpoint. Once a block is finalized, the theory is that "one can never go back"; even if 99% of miners start supporting a chain that does not contain that block, clients will still accept that block as finalized.

    The contract implements a set of rules called "slashing conditions"; these rules were carefully designed to have the property that if two incompatible blocks are finalized (eg. A and B are finalized where A and B are both children of C), then no matter how such a situation arises, there MUST exist some set of validators, with total size equal to at least 1/3 of some recent active validator set, which sent messages that trigger some slashing condition. If a validator does this, then "evidence" of this fact can be sent into the Casper contract, and the validator's entire deposit will be destroyed (except 4%, which is given to the evidence submitter as a "finder's fee"). Hence, reverting a finalized block is extremely expensive, likely more expensive than the cost of buying enough mining hardware to repeatedly engage in 51% attacks against the current PoW-only Ethereum chain forever.


    There are two parts to the implementation of a stage-1-Casper-friendly Ethereum implementation:

    1. An implementation of the "fork choice rule", the function which determines what the "canonical chain" is. This is the replacement for the "longest chain rule" in PoW.
    2. A daemon (or integrated software package) that implements the logic needed to be a Casper validator.

    Fork choice rule

    A simple fork choice rule implementation is as follows:

    1. At initialization time, let HEAD be the genesis block.
    2. For every checkpoint, keep track of the prepares and commits that you receive from the active validator set of that current block. To do this, when you receive a prepare/commit, inspect the prepare/commit to see what epoch and hash it is for, then call casper.is_in_active_validator_set(i) where i is the validator index specified in the prepare/commit, using the post-state of the checkpoint block in question. If this call returns yes, and if the signature validates, then the prepare/commit is valid for that checkpoint.
    3. Define score(checkpoint) as the total size of valid commits for the checkpoint IF the total size of valid prepares is at least 2/3 of that checkpoint's active validator set, otherwise zero.
    4. If, after processing a prepare or commit for some checkpoint CP, you find that its score is greater than the score of the HEAD, then let ANC_CHAIN be the chain of ancestors of the HEAD going back to the common ancestor between CP and HEAD (including the HEAD, but not including the common ancestor itself). If score(CP) > score(C) for all C in ANC_CHAIN, then set HEAD = CP.
    5. If you receive a checkpoint NEW_CP which is a direct child of HEAD, set HEAD = NEW_CP.
    6. For each checkpoint, keep track of the proof-of-work longest chain starting from that checkpoint, up to a maximum depth of 99 blocks (eg. for some checkpoint where block.number = 17200, keep track of the descendant with the highest block number but ignore any blocks with block.number >= 17300.

    To determine the head at any time, simply take the head of the proof-of-work longest chain starting from HEAD.

    Validator logic


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release solidity V0.4.11

    This release fixes a bug in the optimizer (more about this on the blog), introduces the standard JSON interface, adds interface contracts and implements some additional safety checks.

    The standard JSON interface provides a unified way to invoke the Solidity compiler in order to ease cross-platform adoption and compilation verification.


    • Implement the Standard JSON Input / Output API
    • Support interface contracts.
    • C API (jsonCompiler): Add the compileStandard() method to process a Standard JSON I/O.
    • Commandline interface: Add the --standard-json parameter to process a Standard JSON I/O.
    • Commandline interface: Support --allow-paths to define trusted import paths. Note: the path(s) of the supplied source file(s) is always trusted.
    • Inline Assembly: Storage variable access using _slot and _offset suffixes.
    • Inline Assembly: Disallow blocks with unbalanced stack.
    • Static analyzer: Warn about statements without effects.
    • Static analyzer: Warn about unused local variables, parameters, and return parameters.
    • Syntax checker: issue deprecation warning for unary '+'


    • Assembly output: Implement missing AssemblyItem types.
    • Compiler interface: Fix a bug where source indexes could be inconsistent between Solidity compiled with different compilers (clang vs. gcc) or compiler settings. The bug was visible in AST and source mappings.
    • Gas Estimator: Reflect the most recent fee schedule.
    • Type system: Contract inheriting from base with unimplemented constructor should be abstract.
    • Optimizer: Number representation bug in the constant optimizer fixed.

    We especially thank all our open source community contributors:

    Abraham Sangha, AdrianClv, Andy Milenius, Chandan Kumar, Federico Bond, FedericoCapello, JohnAllen, Matt Searle, Matt Wisniewski, Morgan, Omkara and Rhett Aultman

    If you want to perform a source build, please only use solidity_0.4.11.tar.gz and not the zip provided by github directly.


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Geth  v1.6.1

    Geth 1.6.1 is mostly a bugfix release adding various polishes throughout the codebase.

    Highlights of the release are the capability to iterate over a contract's storage entries via the RPC; transitioning Whisper to protocol v51.6.1 milestone.

    New features:

    • debug_storageRangeAt RPC supports iterating over contract storage entries (#14350).
    • Switch Whisper to protocol v5 (#14387), ship diagnostic tool (#14414).
    • Add --rinkeby flag to quickly connect to the Rinkeby testnet (#14418).
    • Support disabling USB hardware wallet lookups (#14357).
    • GitHub faucet bot protection (#14339) and funding tiers (#14402).
    • Add explicit SSH server key management for puppeth (#14398).
    • geth init and geth removedboperate on both full and light chains (#14412).

    Bugfixes and annoyances:

    • Forbid leading zeroes in RPC block numbers (#13886).
    • Friendly error if the user tries to reinit its chain with an incompatible genesis (#14358).
    • Return [] instead of null when listing accounts but none can be found (#14374).
    • When generating bootnode keys, print and exit, don't start up node (#14372).
    • Make network IDs uniform uint64 everywhere (#14377).
    • Fix data race in during native dapp node restarts (#14379).
    • Support setting flags after sub-commands too (#14388#14413).
    • Fix clique miner ugly error log when starting a new network (#14411).

    Binaries and mobile libraries are available on our Download page


  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Mist v0.8.10

    add windows code-signing (#2194)


  • Ethereum Growing Exponentially in China


    Andrew Keys

    Everything changes. Everything is connected. Pay Attention.

    Last week, I was fortunate enough to be invited to the city of Hangzhou for the Global Blockchain Financial Summit.

    During this trip to China, I learned about the burgeoning Ethereum communities in Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou. Every night we hosted an Ethereum meetup and it was standing room only in each city.

    DAY 1 — Beijing

    Peking University

    The first stop on the tour was Peking University, the #1 ranked university in China.

    Peking University is a comprehensive and national key university. The campus, known as “Yan Yuan”, is situated at Haidian District in the western suburb of Beijing.The university has effectively combined research on important scientific subjects with the training of personnel with a high level of specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country’s socialist modernization. Thus Peking University has become a center for teaching and research and a university of a new type, embracing diverse branches of learning such as basic and applied sciences, social sciences and the humanities, and sciences of medicine, management, and education.

    Peking University is creating an Ethereum Laboratory to work on protocol improvements and application use cases that effect China, specifically in supply chain and energy markets.

    Royal Chinese Mint

    The Royal Chinese Mint is the subordinate unit of China Banknote Printing and Minting, which is responsible for the electronic banking mission of China Bank, concentrating on the research and exploration of the forefront of digital money, taking part widely in innovation and practice in the fields such as digital currency, mobile finance, smart-city construction and Internet based finance; it also actively promotes the application of blockchain technology in finance and related fields.

    The Royal Chinese Mint is experimenting with the ERC 20 token standard and Ethereum smart contracts to digitize the RMB.


    Next stop was iPayNow.

    iPayNow uses Quorum, a version of Ethereum incoporating transactional privacy open-sourced by JP Morgan. The company provides aggregated payment service to hundreds of thousands of business clients, such as, MI, Baidu, Meituan, Ctrip and etc. To them, it is clear that blockchain technology will lead the next generation of mobile payment market.

    Day 2 — Nanjing

    Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province, another key city in Yangtze River Delta Region.

    Jiangsu Huaxin BIockchain Research Institute (JBI)

    JBI was founded in Dec, 2016. The establishment of the institute is approved by provincial government aiming for promoting industrial upgrading on a strategic level. Currently, JBI focuses mainly on blockchain technology application to industry and personnel training service. JBI has 30 developers and researchers focused solely on Ethereum and have recently translated much of the Ethereum and EEA documentation into Mandarin. JBI will be a powerhouse in the Ethereum-ecosystem and will become a beachhead for corporations outside of China.

    Day 3 — Shanghai


    Dianrong was founded in Shanghai in 2012 by the co-founder of Lending Club Soul Htite and private fund partner Yuhang Guo focusing on peer-to-peer lenging. It has been expanding quickly with 28 branches and 3500 employees all over China. As a leading fin-tech company, Dianrong started blockchain research in 2015 and spent many efforts on next-generation solutions based on Ethereum, and have open-sourced their permissioned Ethereum iteration, DChain.


    Andui, a founding member of Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, is playing a key role in enterprise ethereum standardization. The core team consists of entrepreneurs, investors, researchers and technical experts. As a pure blockchain company, its main business covers supply chain finance, asset digitization, asset exchange and smart city etc. Andui, the flagship product is fully designed based on ethereum protocol and smart contract with the purpose of deploying ethereum in private or consortium environment.

    Day 4 — Hangzhou

    Hangzhou is a modern city in a classic Chinese setting. The city hums with activities and an endless flow of traffic, signs of its place in the 21st century, while the beautiful West Lake lies peacefully at the heart of all commotion, soothing the senses. Hangzhou is also famous for hosting the G20 Summit where 20 of the world’s most influential countries gathered to improve Earth.  In eastern China, Hangzhou is the capital of Zhejiang Province and one of the seven capitals of ancient China. The city is also the southern end of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, the longest canal ever built in the world.  Nowadays,Hangzhou is aiming at building a Digital City,and the China’s first Blockchain Industrial Park was officially established in Hangzhou.

    Ant Financial

    Ant Financial, was officially founded in October 2014 and originated from Alipay, which is the world’s leading third-party payment platform founded in 2004. With its vision of “bringing small and beautiful changes to the world,” Ant Financial is dedicated to creating an open ecosystem, enabling financial institutions and partners to make rapid progress towards “Internet+” goals through its “Internet Booster Plan,” and providing inclusive financial services to small and micro enterprises and individual consumers.

    Ant Financial runs Alipay, Ant Fortune, Ant Financial Cloud and other financial services. Ant Financial’s invested companies and affiliates also work with these businesses units and support Ant Financial’s ecosystem. The services provided by Ant Financial and its affiliates cover payment, wealth management, credit reporting, private bank and cloud computing.

    Ant Financial is experimenting with Ethereum technology to improve their global payment platforms.

    CrypTape & ETH Fans

    CrypTape, founded by Jan Xie, who is the only core member of ethereum project in China, is working on ethereum protocol level optimization. Their first product CITA, written in Rust, is expected to show the highest performance ever when Ethereum is used in permissioned blockchain for enterprise use cases. Cryptape is also responsible for the Ruby-on-Rails implementation of Ethereum.

    ETH Fans

    ETH Fans is a the most commonly visited Ethereum website in China. Toya is the main content creator of the site. She is holding her phone showing the Chinese Gnosis WeChat group with 477 people that were speaking about the token launch on the day of the event.


    IMToken is the first ethereum light wallet in China. This Dapp immediately become popular when formally released by ConsenLabs after one year‘s development because IMToken has designed functionality where users can purchase ether directly from exchanges in a single click, as well as participate in token launches seamlessly.

    Day 5 — Global Blockchain Financial Summit

    The Global Blockchain Financial (Hangzhou) Summit 2017 was held in Hangzhou International Expo Center on Apirl 28.

    Vitalik Buterin gave his insights on why blockchain technology is disrupting the world. Many IT and blockchain companies also took part in the summit and expressed their ideas. The conference was featured with a dedicated EEA forum with more than 1000 people in attendance.

    This is just the opening act for the power house that China is.

    Xie-xie to all the wonderful friends I made,


  • Ethereum Weekly News Update

    Week in Ethereum, May 7, 2017


    Evan Van Ness


    News and Links


    Protocol and releases

    Stuff for developers


    Interviews and Talks

    Project Updates

    Token Sales


    Dates of note

    [For ongoing sales, check previous week]

    Bias transparency: if you host a blockchain conference and don’t use Ticketleap, I’m much less likely to include your conference, unless you have a good reason as to why we’re not a good fit. But I doubt there is one, because we’re likely a great fit. /shamelessplug

    [I aim for a relatively comprehensive list of Ethereum sales, but make no warranty as to even whether they are legit; as such, I thus likewise warrant nothing about whether any will produce a satisfactory return. I have passed the CFA exams, but this is not investment advice. If you’re interested in what I do, you can find my investing thesis and token sale appreciation strategies in previous newsletters.]

    Errors or additions: [first name]

    The link for sharing

    Here’s the link if you’d like to be ever so kind as to share this issue:

    [Not sure I like Medium’s formatting, but I’m interested to see whether people clicking the heart button leads to new subscribers and readers.]

    Good and bad news for me: subscriber count went way over 2000 this last week to about 2150, so I went from free to paying Mailchimp $30 a month. It blows me away that they can charge $360 a year for a commodity: sending a low amount of email. I’ll likely switch to SES when I have a chance.

    Follow me on Twitter? @evan_van_ness

    This newsletter is supported by But in case you still want to send Ether (or tokens?): 0x96d4F0E75ae86e4c46cD8e9D4AE2F2309bD6Ec45


    Evan Van Ness

    When everyone is running the same way, I'll be walking in the opposite direction.

  • Ethereum (eth)  core Devs Meeting Live

  • Ethereum (ETH) again 2nd Place tough Competition With Ripple 


    There Is Tough Competition For 2nd Place From Ripple , Ripple Also Very Trustful And Stable for Investments 


  • “Ethereum provides a complex platform with simple interface”

    (A conversation with James Prestwich from STORJ)

    Storj is a peer to peer cloud storage network that implements client-side encryption and allow users to transfer and share data without reliance on a third-party storage provider. Established in 2014, Storj disrupted existing centralized cloud storage system. The removal of central controls helped solve most traditional data failures and outages, as well as significantly increase security, privacy, and data control. It is an open source storage platform where data is not centralized, monitored, or have any downtime.

    “Decentralized file storage system like Storj have the potential to eliminate high markup costs and market inefficiencies and provide a much higher level of privacy, reliability and quality of service than we see today.” — Vitalik Buterin

    Storj is one of the few organizations which started raising funds with
    the crowd-sale. Storj has an existing token SJCX with a working product
    and protocol, which allows users to purchase storage and bandwidth, and
    get paid for renting out hard drives and bandwidth. Recently, few
    changes in the organization took place and they decided to raise fund
    for restructuring with token sale. STORJ is the new token and its sale
    began on May 19, 2017, 11:00 AM EDT (3:00 PM UTC) and is planned to end
    on June 19, 2017, 11:00 AM EDT, or when the cap is reached. STORJ raised
    more than 2/3rd of the planned fund in less than 8 hrs.

    EtherWorld appreciates James Prestwich spending time and sharing his insights about the project, migration to Ethereum platform, token sale and the wonderful team of STORJ. James is one of the founders of STORJ. We’re glad to share excerpts of our conversation.

    E: Hi James, can you please tell us a little bit about yourself and how you got into STORJ and blockchain technology?

    J: My name is James Prestwich. I am the COO and CFO for STORJ, I’ve been doing that for a few years. I joined STORJ in mid 2014 to stature the first token. I work on operations, finance, book keeping, accounting, HR, technical architecture as well. I wrote the current version of white paper and in free time, I do write the code. My background is in software development and small business management. I came from small entrepreneur ventures during after college. One was just me and a friend managing a team of about ten people. I got into STORJ because I was interested in the idea and the technology, I thought it has a lot of potential and it can really change things. My role is to make sure keep things moving. Making sure that we treat this as a business and then focus on product and pay attention to our users.

    I stumbled on Bitcoin back in 2012, and followed it out of technical curiosity. It took me a while to really wrack my head around things like proof of work, the way the blockchain works. It really took me a couple of years to crack this what’s really going on? It’s not just the money sending from person to person, it’s machine knowable of payment system. It’s the first time in history when you can have machine exchanging values without human interaction. I am interested in blockchain but don’t know the entire machine economy.

    E: Please share foundation story of STORJ and the overview of the project.

    J: Back in mid 2014, it was really just me, Shawn Wilkinson and Tome Boshevski were the cofounders. We were working on an open source project. Shawn was writing code in his spare time and doing assigned work of development. We were still in early stages and then came our partner John Quinn who teamed up faster. We came across with all of our potential and saw something interesting and kept working on it. We kept refining it, built more understanding until we made it better and better. Just like I said, when you show up and work, the only reward you get is more and more work. The four of us came together because we had a mix of skill and perspective that worked and started pushing things forward faster. Instead of starting out an open source project, we just started pushing it towards figuring it how not just build the technology but take it people to use it and make it significantly impact.

    E: Starting with a small group, STORJ has a big team now that has been together for 3 years. Please share more about the team and key tips to keep a team motivated towards the same vision?

    J: Yes, the open source project started 3 years and a month or two ago. We incorporated and started raising money in late 2015, a year and half after that. Since then we started with the four of us and a few community members too. We pooled our testers from directly our community which has been great for us. We are growing fast and we are really excited about it and we are looking forward to keep growing fast.

    It’s really a good goal to keep 14 people working for same vision. The real thing that you’ve to do is to communicate constantly, that’s one of my role here is. More like in traditionally managed company, you might call it product management or something like that. Talking to everybody, determining what would act best for the company and best for the users, writing it down and making sure that everyone is on the same page. It really is lot more difficult than I thought it would be, but it’s very rewarding.

    E: About platform migration, why team choose Ethereum? What do you think are the main differences between the previous platform and Ethereum? Any interesting story to share?

    J: We were previously using the platform called Counterparty, which was the layer on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. We would put so many data on the Bitcoin blockchain and Counterparty knows a good watch for them and interpret as exchanges of token. When we made Counterparty tokens 3 years ago, it was a brand-new platform, had a lot of technical potential and Ethereum was just an idea, then it wasn’t anywhere close to existing. So, we wanted to use the token of the ground and that was the best available tool. Unfortunately, Counterparty failed to grow the way we hoped it would grow like another platform like Ethereum has. So, three years down the road you find yourself locked into a platform that doesn’t work very well. With Counterparty, you always pay a higher fee on a Bitcoin transaction because there is small data in the transaction. It doesn’t support a lot of new Bitcoin features like the good multisig, Counterparty still uses the older style, which actually is completely broken by a Bitcoin core update last year. We were spending hours to figure out why we couldn’t spend our not tokens on our multisig account, Counterparty multisig no longer worked. We came to a conclusion that we need to do something about it. Because we had tokens and this great community, that we were close to it; we needed unique ability to perform a migration like this. We settled on Ethereum because it was a kind of best developed platform in this system. ERC 20 token standard is gaining lot of attention with different projects. It means there are a lot of good wallet out there and more technical projects are underway like micro-payment channel.

    Ethereum at its core is a better platform for development than Bitcoin. When you are building a platform, you’ve to keep in mind its complexity; you want people to build on top of this so, you need to have a simple interface. But, since it needs to do something valuable, so platform in itself must be very complex otherwise it wouldn’t be worth in putting it. So, you want a complex platform in simple access to it. Ethereum provides a very complex platform, a complete blockchain virtual machine, but it feels just like developing in JS, an another normal programing language. Whereas, Bitcoin is a complex platform, but its scripting language is reverse polish notation (RPN) stack machine, it’s really a mess. In order to develop anything on top of Bitcoin, you need to spend 80 % of your time just fighting that interface. Lightning network takes long to materialize, makes developing on top of Bitcoin incredibly difficult. So, we figured that we could take this opportunity to move over to what we see a better platform for developers and customers. Hopefully, we will be able to contribute to a bigger ecosystem. Other benefits like less block time and less transaction charge are significant right now but could go away eventually if Ethereum become very popular. Ethereum has better wrap to addressing those things in the form of a channel but Bitcoin doesn’t. So, it’s not that the immediate picture out here but better long-term promise with Ethereum.

    E: Blockchain technology is a little complicated for normal person, is it possible to use STORJ for end users having very less understanding of the underlying technology?

    J: With this kind of platform complexity, we are trying to find out simple interfaces. We can abstract away this whole distributed network into crypto development interphase, and then developers can abstract that away as a product or the application. So, the end user might be using STORJ and getting the privacy, security and cost benefits of it without ever knowing the platform. The developer can use storage and get the benefits of it without necessarily knowing that they are using distributed network on machine payable contracts. It’s all about taking something and providing a simple interface to it, making it work so well that there is no good reason not to do it. We are trying to upgrade the base level of privacy, security and speed for data storage on the internet.

    E: What do you have to say about the token sale? Do you see any difference in previous and preset time?

    J: Yes, definitely. We were one of the first projects to do something like this about 3 years ago. At the time, it was real difficult to explain people about what is going on. What is token? It is an altcoin, sort of, it doesn’t have its blockchain, it sits on top of another blockchain. This time around people are already comfortable with this sort of things. The token market right now is really popular. It’s drawing a lot of attention, a lot of companies doing token sales, showing security issuance on the blockchain. It’s really going to be lot easier to get people both individual and company to wrack their head around what we are doing. I get a lot of education piece in the last two years.

    We are very optimistic this time. We already have received 2/3rd of it. When you compare us with other project’s token sale or ICO’s right now, we are in a very different state than them. We have years of experience in our field, a working product and an amazing chain of engineers, thousands line of codes, users, developers and farmers. A lot of projects are doing token sale on nothing but an idea. So, we wanted to differentiate our sale and set the capital a little higher because we need more liquidity as we have good things to spend it on. We set the time limit of 30 days, we’ve kind of expected that sale within that time period. I am just trying to relax for a little bit after getting this whole thing out of the door.

    E: Would you like to share any timeline / roadmap about project STORJ?

    J: Not in terms of specific date. I can talk about what we are planning and working on and why. Right now, our lead engineer is finishing up next version of our core library. It’s a major version, so that’s going to be a big roll out in next few months. We go through multiple phases of testing and then start rolling it out. We’ve set of people dedicated to reliability and performance so making sure that files just don’t disappear, which is something we are really good at. There a lot of backend and network changes we’re working on. We want to work on taking some of the more centralized aspects of our service and breaking it up into decentralized and segregated system. The main focus right now is reliability, we’re going to keep pushing up that to peruse in future.

    E: Any plans of working on SWARM protocol?

    J: I talk to team regularly on gitter. It would be really nice to be working together. Given how early SWARM could be, it’s hard to say, how that would be. But this is definitely something that we are interested in.

    Thank you, James, for sharing details about you and STORJ. EtherWorld wishes you and the team our best.

    Follow EtherWorld at Twitter.

  • Ethereum (ETH) Roundup Round III

    Over the last month and a half we saw vigorous ongoing research and development on all sides of the Ethereum roadmap, and progress is rapidly starting to translate into real results that can be run and verified inside of an Ethereum client.

    On Metropolis:

    • Agendas for core dev meetings 15 and 16 here:
    • List of accepted EIPs here: (mostly agreed on, though we are still going back and forth on details such as gas costs)
    • Most of the EIPs have been implemented in C++ and Python and are being implemented in other clients; tests are being actively written and added here (see the various branches for different tests)
    • Clients that have not implemented GeneralStateTests could provide a docker image for   Hive testing (contact Martin Swende). All GeneralStateTests are being converted into BlockChainTests and run on Hive.
    • A release date has still not been finalized; the general consensus is to wait until all tests are passing on major clients before setting one. Because of the rapid increases in block difficulty, the ice age continues to be delayed; current prognosis assuming no further increases (arguably a very pessimistic estimate) is that block times will not exceed 20s until July 12, and will not exceed 30s until Sep 12.

    The Ethereum blockchain has hit several new all-time highs:

    • Difficultyhashrate (28.5 TH)
    • Transactions per day (187115, or ~2.16 per sec)
    • Gas usage per day has not yet reached the all-time high of Jun 18, when the blockchain was heavily spammed as part of the DAO attack and various counterattacks, but is nearing it with an 11-month highdynamically adjusting, so congestion with rapidly increasing fees is not likely) . Uncle rate on that day was only ~7.4%.

    On various side projects:

    • ENS has been deployed, and auctions are ongoing.
    • Whisper is getting a proper API, which is in alignment with our general RPC, the API should be ready soon and a workable whisper version will be released.


    Pyethereum development has picked up quickly:

    • Jan Xie and his team have successfully synced a pyethapp node to the most recent block on the mainnet.
    • Several bugs in the implementation have been fixed, and the client is now passing all state tests and most pre-Metropolis blockchain tests. Work to find the remaining issues is ongoing.
    • Most Metropolis EIPs have been implemented, including the four new precompiles.
    • The tester module has been revamped so that it is fully based on the Chain module, and a new and more convenient interface has been added, including functionality such as creating state tests.

    Casper research is now in the process of fine-tuning the incentives for liveness, and implementing the logic inside of pyethereum. This includes:

    Other research stuff:

    • Substantial work has been done on sharding, and specifically the dreaded “data availability problem”; see here:
    • The Sharding FAQ [has been updated](

    Geth development:

    C++ development:

    • the monitoring node achieved a full sync to the mainnet
    • metropolis EIPsfast sync and snapshot sync has begun
    • Testeth tool has new option –statediff for debug information on a praticular test case as well as new test format  GeneralStateTests (enhancement of the old statetests) [4074]


    • almost finished a new static analysis module that can detect reentrancy bugs (externally contributed by “soad003”) [508]
    • added a folder view to show open files inside folders – files imported via e.g. import “”; are now visible in the folder view [449498]
    • rearranged tabs to provide better overview [496]


    • we released the unified standard json interface to interact with the compiler [16391688]
    • added some more safety checks: statements without effect, and unary plus and unused variables [21392152, 2199]
    • further work on the new intermediate language including web assembly and EVM1.5 backends [2129 and lots more]
    • almost finished work on exporting and especially also importing the AST (this will allow mutation testing and lots of other extensions) [1810 and others]


    • Decouple geth specific hard-coded node and network handling, allow for arbitrary nodes and networks defined by local or remote clientBinaries.json
    • Refactor of the settings backend in preparation for a settings UI
    • Added macOS and Windows Code-Signing, preparing github/swarm based auto-updater
    • Many of the audit findings will incorporated in the coming releases

    Changes to the provider will make Mist and other Projects like MetaMask and more future proof, as developers don’t need to depend on high level libraries not changing over time. There will be a few announcements concerning the new provider. Discussion about that is happening at


    • We are currently adding generation and signing with private keys right into web3.js. So that you can easily create wallets and sign messages in your dapps. You can find the current experimental docs here:
    • The next steps will be adding @maiavictor’s swarm library and the new whisper API and the new web3.js should be ready for test drive by the community.


    Vitalik Buterin

  • Ethereum core  Dev Meeting #16 -  19/05/2017

  • Ethereum (ETH) Weekly News 28/05/2017

    News and Links
    Top - Tokens, tokens, tokens
    ProtocolStuff for developersEcosystemProject Announcements Interviews and Talks Project Updates

    Token Sale Announcements

    Token Sale stuffGeneral
    Dates of note
    [For ongoing sales, check previous week]Bias transparency: if you host a blockchain conference and don't use Ticketleap, I'm much less likely to include your conference, unless you have a good reason as to why we're not a good fit.  But I doubt there is one, because we're likely a great fit.  /shamelessplug [I aim for a relatively comprehensive list of Ethereum sales, but make no warranty as to even whether they are legit; as such, I thus likewise warrant nothing about whether any will produce a satisfactory return. I have passed the CFA exams, but this is not investment advice. If you're interested in what I do, you can find my investing thesis and token sale appreciation strategies in previous newsletters.] Errors or additions: [first name]   
    The link for sharing

    The best compliment you can give this is to share or upvote Follow me on Twitter? @evan_van_ness

    This newsletter is supported by  But in case you still want to send Ether (or tokens?):  0x96d4F0E75ae86e4c46cD8e9D4AE2F2309bD6Ec45

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release Geth v1.6.5 (Hat Trick)

    Geth v1.6.5 is a security release to counter on ongoing attack on mainnet!

    • Use a bitmap instead of a hashmap to store the results of jumpdest analysis, and optimise analysis process (#14570).

    Binaries and mobile libraries are available on our download page.


  • Changelog:

    This release addresses:

    • a rare condition where quickly creating a new account was generating an account not matching the recovery phrase.
    • compressed RLP strings caused wrong/empty transaction receipts on Classic network.
    • blacklisting the empty phrase account from UI and RPC on non-development chains. See also this blog post.
    • canceling transactions that didn't have a condition.
    • the updated Expanse fork block and chain ID.

    Full changelog:

  • Backporting to beta #5791
    • Bump to v1.6.8
    • Update expanse json with fork at block 600000 #5351
      • Update expanse json with fork at block 600000
      • Update exp chainID to 2
    • Bumped mio #5763#5782
    • Blacklist empty phrase account. #5730#5785
      • Updating ring,multihash,tiny-keccak
      • Updating CID in ipfs.
    • Disable compression for RLP strings #5786
  • Beta Backports #5789

    • Fix local transactions without condition. #5716#5784
      • Additional non-empty phrase check (fromNew)
      • Explicit canCreate check in create (not only on UI)
      • BN instance check (fixes Geth imports)
      • Fixup tests after better checks
    • Recover from empty phrase in dev mode #5698
      • Add dev chain to isTest
      • Fix signer
      • Fix no condition transactions
      • Fix case: old parity
      • Fix propTypes.


  • Ethereum (ETH) Parity 1.6.8 Released 

    • Changelog:

      This release addresses:

      • a rare condition where quickly creating a new account was generating an account not matching the recovery phrase.
      • compressed RLP strings caused wrong/empty transaction receipts on Classic network.
      • blacklisting the empty phrase account from UI and RPC on non-development chains. See also this blog post.
      • canceling transactions that didn't have a condition.
      • the updated Expanse fork block and chain ID.

      Full changelog:

    • Backporting to beta #5791
      • Bump to v1.6.8
      • Update expanse json with fork at block 600000 #5351
        • Update expanse json with fork at block 600000
        • Update exp chainID to 2
      • Bumped mio #5763#5782#5730#5785
        • Updating ring,multihash,tiny-keccak
        • Updating CID in ipfs.
      • Disable compression for RLP strings #5786
    • Beta Backports #5789

      • Fix local transactions without condition. #5716#5784
        • Additional non-empty phrase check (fromNew)
        • Explicit canCreate check in create (not only on UI)
        • BN instance check (fixes Geth imports)
        • Fixup tests after better checks
      • Recover from empty phrase in dev mode #5698
        • Add dev chain to isTest
        • Fix signer
        • Fix no condition transactions
        • Fix case: old parity
        • Fix propTypes.


  • Ethereum Core Devs Meeting #18 [6/16/17]

  • Ethereum Overtakes Bitcoin in Google Search Trends



    Email [email protected]


    For the first
    time in cryptocurrency history, Ethereum has overtaken Bitcoin in U.S.
    Google search term popularity. Although it didn’t take long for Bitcoin
    to recover its position as the most searched cryptocurrency in the
    U.S.A, this moment marked a significant milestone in the history of
    Ethereum, which is growing rapidly. While Ethereum was able to rank
    higher than Bitcoin several times, it did so only for a few moments, as
    seen below:

    Bitcoin was able to maintain its dominance at all times in the
    worldwide search terms, it was overcome by Ethereum multiple times in
    the United Kingdom and Singapore. In South Korea, a country where ETH’s trading volume is bigger than that of Bitcoin’s, the Ethereum search term ranked higher than Bitcoin consistently.
    in Asia, Bitcoin continues to be the most searched cryptocurrency term
    in Japan, while in China, Ethereum overtook Bitcoin multiple times,
    possibly due to the recent addition of Ether to OKcoin and Huobi, two of
    the biggest exchanges in the country.
    Ethereum rally
    recent upsurge in the popularity of Ethereum is undoubtedly connected
    to the price rally that is taking Ether to unprecedented heights.
    Currently sitting at $380, Ethereum has grown over 4650% since the
    beginning of the year, completely overshadowing Bitcoin’s 177% growth
    and positioning itself as one of the best performing cryptocurrencies in
    2017 so far.
    Ether’s growth can be pinned to multiple factors
    like the creation of the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance consortium, the
    prospect of new developments in the Metropolis update, like the
    implementation of ZK-Snarks and, of course, by the growing amount of
    Initial Coin Offering (ICO) campaigns that are being held through the
    Ethereum network, which are gathering millions of dollars every week.
    Ether’s price rise is currently bringing a smile to the face of those
    who hold it in their portfolio, one must also question if such an
    accentuated growth is sustainable. Several members of the cryptocurrency
    community have shared their views regarding a possible altcoin and
    Ether bubble. WhalePanda recently published a blog post regarding the possible Ethereum bubble. He stated:
    you’re a trader or investor, be realistic about the bubble. I know you
    hear this a 100 times when you’re trading but: don’t invest what you
    can’t afford to lose.”
    A shift in dominance?
    a market cap of $36 billion, 80% of Bitcoin’s, Ethereum’s fast-paced
    growth is currently threatening to dethrone Bitcoin as the most valuable
    cryptocurrency by market capitalization.
    Not only is Ethereum
    gunning for the top spot, the general cryptocurrency rally has also
    reduced Bitcoin’s dominance from 87% in January to roughly 39% today,
    something that has never happened before. In the meantime, Ether’s
    market dominance has grown from 4.5% to 31.38%.

    it’s still unclear how the landscape would change if Ethereum became
    the most valuable cryptocurrency, it seems that a shift in dominance may
    be coming to cryptocurrency market.

  • EtherWorld’s weekly: July 2, 2017

    (Blockchain Newspaper)


    Project updates

    New Projects

    • NOTTAR — Notarise documents using the Ethereum blockchain
    • UnikoinGold- eSports betting platform
    • Thetoken.eth- subdomains for all major tokens
    • InPay — First Dual Blockchain Project For Ethereum Classic and Waves.


    Developer’s Update

    ICO / Token sale updates

    Upcoming Events

    For more updates, technical blogs and general discussion on Blockchain Technology and Ethereum, please join us at our Website, reddit, Facebook, Medium, Slack and follow us at Twitter. Please feel free to share this post, email us with your suggestions and connect at LinkedIn.

    #cryptocurrency #Ethereum #blockchain #FinTech #bitcoin #ico #news

    Originally published at localhost on July 2, 2017.



    Latest News, Technical Blogs and General discussion on Ethereum, Blockchain and Cryptocurrency.


    TopProtocol and releasesStuff for developers
    Dates of note
    From Token Sale Calendar:

    Upcoming token sale start dates:

    You can find this calendar updated daily at [I aim for a relatively comprehensive list of Ethereum sales, but make no warranty as to even whether they are legit; as such, I thus likewise warrant nothing about whether any will produce a satisfactory return. I have passed the CFA exams, but this is not investment advice. If you're interested in what I do, you can find my investing thesis and token sale appreciation strategies in previous newsletters.] Errors or additions: [first name]  or tweet @evan_van_ness
    Newsletter housekeeping
    Some time in early August, there will be an announcement that I've joined ConsenSys.  Here's a logo to draw your eye in case you were going to skip over this section:     I'm very excited about this move and will have significantly more to say in the future.  The newsletters should become more regular again! In the meantime, I wanted to make it clear so that you can judge whether I favor ConsenSys projects.  My charge from Joe Lubin is pretty similar to what Status has told me: keep telling the truth and covering the space objectively, even if the truth hurts.  

    >td >

    The best compliment you can give this is to share or upvote Follow me on Twitter? @evan_van_ness

    This newsletter is supported by  But in case you still want to send Ether (or tokens?):  0x96d4F0E75ae86e4c46cD8e9D4AE2F2309bD6Ec45

  • Ethereum (ETH) Release solidity Version 0.4.13

    This is a small bugfix release that fixes several trivial but very annoying bugs that were introduced with 0.4.12. We also deprecate some old features in preparation of the breaking release 0.5.0.


    • Syntax Checker: Deprecated throw in favour of require(), assert() and revert().
    • Type Checker: Warn if a local storage reference variable does not explicitly use the keyword storage.


    • Code Generator: Correctly unregister modifier variables.
    • Compiler Interface: Only output AST if analysis was successful.
    • Error Output: Do not omit the error type.

    We especially thank all our open source community contributors:

    Leo Arias and Patrick Walters.

    If you want to perform a source build, please only use solidity_0.4.13.tar.gz and not the zip provided by github directly.


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