Virtue Poker - A P2P Decentralized Poker Platform Built on Ethereum




  • About:

    Peer-to-peer card shuffling. Bets held in secure escrow. Cryptographically signed hand results. Poker you can trust. Payouts directly back into your digital wallet



    FEATURES

    • SECURITY OF PLAYER FUNDS

    Players do not deposit money into a centralized Virtue Poker system.
    Instead, players fund their personal digital wallets and enter games
    with these funds.

    • TAMPER PROOF GAMING

    All gameplay happens using off-chain using a secure implementation of mental poker.

    • INSTANT PAYOUTS

    All payouts happen in less than 60 seconds and are automatically sent back to a player’s digital wallet when they leave a table.

    • GUARANTEED TOURNAMENTS

    Competitors spend money on expensive sponsorships on poker stars and
    athletes, we feel like our players would prefer if we spent that money
    on them instead, so we put our marketing resources into guaranteed
    tournaments.

    Virtue Solution

    The Virtue Poker team has spent years researching the current market dynamics in the existing
    industry, and our goal is to address these shortfalls in creating a new decentralized online poker
    network with trust, transparency, and accountability built in. Our goal is to reinvigorate online
    poker through the utilization of the Ethereum blockchain, peer-to-peer networking, user-owned
    identity, and cryptographically secured cards, with the aim to create an improved playing
    experience, at a lower cost to players. More importantly, using these new frameworks, our aim is to
    fix the broken poker economy by both reducing costs to players via lower rake, building out
    rakeback structures that encourage player retention, and through creating the most safe and secure
    online poker platform that will enable players to have fun on our platform, creating a more
    balanced online poker ecosystem.

    * User Flow

    Virtue Poker is a server-less application that will run without storing customer funds, and all
    players will be involved in card shuffling. The user flow can be described as follows:

    •  Download Virtue Poker Client

    A user will visit www.virtue.poker and download our client for either Windows, Mac or Linux. The
    application is downloadable and includes a shuffler, game engine, and user interface.

    • Registration

    Users will then be required to create a uPort identity (if they haven’t already created one). The user
    will have to receive an attestation regarding country of residence and age prior to playing on
    Virtue Poker when required.

    •  Fund a Light Wallet

    The user will be brought to a page that directs them to fund the light wallet that is pre-built into
    the client.

    •  Create a Game or Join a Game

    The user will have the option to create a private game where he or she can invite other
    players to join, or go to our lobby which will show all publicly available games via our Casino
    registry.

    •  Buy-In

    The user can join either a public or private game by sending ETH or VPP (to be discussed later) to
    the table address of the game they’d wish to join. The table or smart contract will sit on the
    Ethereum blockchain and acts as an escrow account while gameplay is conducted. Each game on
    Virtue Poker is represented by a table contract that has the custom parameters of that particular
    game.

    •  Gameplay

    The peers at the table will form a P2P subnet and will use a mental poker protocol that requires
    each individual peer to shuffle the deck of cards.

    •  Payout

    When a tournament is completed, or when a player leaves the table for a cash game, the table
    contract will auto-execute and payout each individual player when winnings are due.

    How Virtue Poker Works


    • Virtue Poker Components

    The Virtue Poker platform will utilize several sub-components for different purposes within the
    application:


    Virtue Poker Components



    •  uPort

    The Ethereum-based identity application uPort will be utilized as a registration and identity
    validation mechanism to prevent underage gambling and multi-accounting. Users will be required
    to sign-in via uPort each time they want to play games on Virtue.

    •  Ethereum Smart Contracts

    Ethereum contracts are utilized for several purposes: (1) as a registry (Lobby) for all active games
    on the platform (2) as a short-term escrow service for players seated at a given table (3) as a
    repository for all game-specific parameters such as buy-in amount, payout percentages, and game
    type, (4) reporting end game results.

    •  Game Client

    The Game Client will initially be a desktop application that is a state-engine that runs the game
    logic, shuffles and deals cards using a Mental Poker protocol, includes a light wallet, and connects
    to other players at a given poker table.

    •  Messaging

    The P2P messaging backbone is utilized as a communication and synchronization tool to ensure
    the user interface for all players at a given table displays the identical game state.

    •  IPFS16

    IPFS will be used to log hand histories for all games played on the platform. Logs can be retrieved
    at a later point in time for review either for compliance or for our game security team.



    * Identity Management

    Virtue Poker will use the self-sovereign identity application uPort to validate a player's’ identity
    prior to allowing users to access the platform.17 An example of this process is illustrated below:

    Illustration of Identity Validation

    Step 1: A user downloads the uPort mobile app, creates a uPort identity and then scans a copy of
    their proof of identity that is verified by a third-party. The attestation is then encrypted and stored
    in IPFS, and the user receives an attestation within their uPort ID regarding their identity.

    Step2: A user makes an account on Virtue Poker and is presented with a QR code that the user
    scans with their uPort app

    Step 3: A new account request is sent to a Virtue Poker Accounts contract with the associated uPort
    ID which checks for an attestation from the third party that has verified the user's identity.

    Step 4: If successful, that user’s uPort ID is paired with their Virtue Poker account address and is
    stored in the Virtue Poker Player Registry.

    * Ethereum Smart Contracts

    After a player has verified their identity and created their account, the user is brought to the “lobby
    or casino contract.

     

    • Casino Contract

    The Casino contract functions as the lobby. It contains a registry of all available games, as well as
    recently completed games. Its functions include game creation as well as matchmaking and other
    frontend, user, and game-management tasks.

    •  Table Contract

    A Table Contract represents a single instance of a game of poker in Virtue Poker. When a decision
    is made to start a game of poker with a particular set of rules and limits and a given set of players,
    a new table contract is created and players join it to play. When that game is done, pots are paid,
    and the players leave, then that table contract is "closed" and no longer used other than as a
    reference point.
    During play, the table contract serves several purposes. Primarily, it is the repository for all
    information regarding the rules and settings for the game being played. It also maintains a list of
    the players in the game, as well as information about them needed by the other players. In
    addition, it is where funds used for gameplay are escrowed, and is responsible for distributing
    winnings.
    When a player joins a table contract, the funds necessary to cover the table buy-in are
    transferred to the table contract and credited internally to the player's stakes. The player then
    receives from the contract the information necessary in order to communicate with the other
    player at the table and play begins. As play progresses, the contract is informed as to the state of
    the game and updates its state accordingly. When the player leaves the game, the contract
    transfers any funds due to the same account from which the player originally paid them.

    •  Player Interactions with Table Contracts

    As currently architected, transactions by players are sent to table contracts in the following
    instances: (1) to join a table (2) at the end of each hand (3) when a game is completed (for
    tournaments) or when a player leaves a table (for cash games). Our goal is to minimize the number
    of transactions sent to Ethereum to reduce our gas costs and improve gameplay speed.
    The table contracts include a “chip counter” which keeps tracks of the players’ stakes at
    each particular table. At the end of each hand, each player and the Justice (described in Section 4.2)
    cryptographically sign the end-results, and send a transaction to the table contract which updates
    each respective player’s stake accordingly. This consensus mechanism and transaction submission
    by the peers at each given table functions as a “oracle,” enabling the contract to keep an updated
    game state, and to know when to pay players. This process happens asynchronously as hands are
    played on the platform, meaning that players can move onto the next hand while previous hand
    result is validated by the blockchain.

    • Multi-table Tournament Contract

    For tournaments that involve play across multiple tables, the multi-table tournament contract acts
    as an organizational tool that manages the distribution of players across the tables. Any aspects of
    the tournament that exist at a higher level than the table itself are handled by this contract.

    •  Justice Management Contract

    A "Justice" is a special case of the player client software which participates in the peer-to-peer
    gameplay of a table, but does not receive cards or place bets. Instead the Justice is externally
    incentivized to act as a "more trustworthy" peer in the table subnet in such a way that a set of
    them at a table can be used to resolve certain potential disputes that might arise and to log the
    game data.
    In order to both distribute the workload as well as to discourage any potential for collusion
    between Justices and players, the Justices are assigned randomly to tables from a pool, and rotate
    through tables after a certain number of hands. The Justice Management Contract is responsible for
    both keeping a registry of available Justices as well as for assigning them to the poker tables.
    Justices will be discussed at greater length in Section 4.2

    * Mental Poker

    •  Overview

    In 1978 cryptographers Adi Shamir, Ron Rivest, and Leonard Adleman published a paper in
    response to a question that had been posed by the computer scientist Robert W. Floyd: "Is it
    possible to play a fair game of 'Mental Poker'?" This paper proposes an encryption scheme and
    communications protocol that allows two people at different locations to shuffle and deal virtual
    "cards" in a way that allows a game to be played without the need of a trusted third-party.18 Over
    the ensuing years there have been numerous other papers published on the subject, expanding
    upon the ideas, offering alternative methods, and providing analysis and critique.
    There have been, however, very few practical software applications employing Mental
    Poker techniques. In large part, this is because the cryptography involved can require enormous
    amounts computational power and communications resources, and software using them simply
    runs too slow for consumer use. In addition, the inherent "peer to peer" nature of Mental Poker can
    be difficult to manage and doesn't blend well with traditional server-based online game models.
    The Virtue Poker team has spent the past two years examining how the use of blockchain
    and distributed storage technologies, in concert with cooperative peer-to-peer networking, can
    address some of these difficulties. The result is a downloadable application that can play a
    6-handed game at speed and manage real player stakes using the Ethereum Blockchain.
    Mental Poker ensures the decks are unreadable to any single player by encrypting and
    shuffling the cards cooperatively in a way that lets each card be "opened" by one, some, or the
    entire group. The protocol uses communicate encryption: cards can be encrypted or decrypted in
    any order. The basic algorithm is outlined in Section 3.5.2.

    •  Mental Poker Algorithm, The Two Pass Shuffle

    The basic algorithm is as follows: Three players, Bob, Alice and Ted are seated at a table and are
    playing a game of Texas Hold’em. Bob is the dealer, and he generates a deck of 52 cards on his
    machine, only he can view the cards. Using Fisher-Yates /dev/urandom he shuffles the deck of
    cards, and then encrypts the deck with the same encryption key on each card, making the deck
    unreadable to anyone but himself. He then passes the now encrypted deck to Alice, who does the
    same thing: shuffles the deck of cards and then encrypts them. Finally, Alice passes the deck to Ted
    who goes through the same process.
    The deck is now in its final ordered state, 1 through 52, and this order does not change
    throughout the course of the hand. Ted passes the now 3x encrypted deck of cards back to Bob,
    who takes off his “shuffle lock” and now encrypts each individual card with a different encryption
    key: B1, B2….B52. He passes the deck to Alice, who does the same thing: removes her “shuffle-key”
    and encrypts the deck with a unique encryption key A1, A2….A52. Alice then passes the deck back
    to Ted, who completes this same process.
    Bob is assigned the first and second card in the deck, but he only possesses his encryption
    keys that correspond to these cards. Alice and Ted therefore share their encryption keys that
    correspond to the first two cards, A1 and A2, and T1 and T2 respectively, so that Bob holds all
    three decryption keys for his private cards. This enables Bob to view his private cards but no one
    else. This process is repeated for each player at the table, so each player can only view their own
    private cards.
    All players call and the hand goes to the flop. The flop is denoted by cards 7, 8 and 9 in the
    deck. All players must share their encryption keys that correspond to the community cards, so that
    everyone can see these shared cards. This process continues until the end of the hand, where the
    winning player is awarded the pot, and all players reach consensus (described in detail in Section
    4.2) by signing the end result of the hand which is sent to the Ethereum blockchain to update the
    game state (chip totals) for all players seated at the table. See Figures 6 through 9 that depict this
    process:

    •  Two Rounds of Encryption: Shuffling the Deck and Indexing the Deck

    “Multi-party shuffling” only requires that one of the peers perform a "proper" random shuffle in
    order to ensure that the entire deck is randomly ordered. If a player trusts that his own 

    machine
    shuffled the deck properly then he can have confidence that the game is fair.

    Shuffling and Encrypting the Deck19

    • Indexing the Deck
    • Decryption and Gameplay

    Player Key Sharing


    Community Cards20


    This process happens “under the hood:” the look and feel of a hand on Virtue Poker is similar to the
    experience players have come to expect with online platforms.


    * Peer-to-Peer Messaging

    •  P2P Messaging for Game Client Synchronization

    While the ideas behind Mental Poker make it possible for a deck to be shared and cards dealt and
    held secret by players in a peer-to-peer network with no need to trust a central server, other
    technologies are required in order to provide a practical, consumer-oriented poker service.
    The downloadable game client software consists of separate "frontend" and "backend"
    processes. The frontend displays the current game state to the local user, and accepts input when
    appropriate and passes it to the backend, which then broadcasts it to the other clients in the game.
    The backend contains the logic needed to apply the rules of poker to the input events that it
    receives both from the frontend and from other clients. The result is that every client is actually
    applying the same code to the same data as all of the others.

    • Off-Chain Gameplay

    A programmable blockchain technology like Ethereum makes it possible to have available a
    definitive and immutable data store for things that might otherwise be handled by a single server,
    like managing the players at a particular table. The ability for client software to interact with
    "contracts" on the blockchain also allows for trustless, distributed management of player funds and
    table stakes, and provides and immutable record of these interactions. But the blockchain cannot
    simply be used as a replacement for a server for all aspects of the game partly because data and
    instructions sent by a client take at best a few seconds to propagate across the chain, making it
    impractical to use it to manage game events at a finer granularity than at the hand level.
    Game events occurring at a higher rate, like betting, must be managed by the client
    software itself, or more properly: by the software that manages the peer-to-peer "subnet"
    consisting of the clients playing at a particular table. The use of digital signatures allows each
    client to verify that messages received have been sent by the claimed sender, preventing forgery.
    Fault tolerant consensus formation techniques are used to ensure that at each step in the process
    of gameplay, every client agrees with every other client as to exactly what has happened. In
    addition to catching errors and hardware failures, Byzantine faults (intentionally bad data) are also
    detected.
    At the end of each hand this "consensus" data - digitally signed by every client - is passed to the
    blockchain for processing, and the clients themselves move on to the next hand. Disagreements
    among clients, or peers at the table are resolved by Justices (described in Section 4.2).

    * IPFS: Game-log Storage of Hand Histories

    In order to provide a permanent record of the actual play of each hand, the signed game event
    messages themselves need to be stored, as well as the state information tracked by the blockchain
    when it processes the end of a hand. This turns up a second weakness in current blockchain


    technology: using the chain to store significant amounts of data can be expensive, so simply
    sending all of this log data to the blockchain is not practical.
    Fortunately, there exist technologies (IPFS, Swarm) that are designed to provide reliable,
    distributed data storage. At the end of a hand, before reporting to the blockchain, the client
    software sends the hand's log data to IPFS, which provides it with a single "hash" value that can be
    used to locate it at a later time. That hash is included with the state data sent to the blockchain
    contract, and since each hand's log data includes the hash of the previous hand's log, it is possible
    to request from the blockchain the most recent hash, and use it to chain back through the entire
    logged history of the game. A distributed storage platform removes singular points of failure
    present in various forms of centralized storage systems.

    *  Fees on Virtue Poker

    The Virtue Poker team understands that rake is an important factor players take into consideration
    when choosing a poker site to play online. Our team has been researching innovative rake
    structures and will use our private beta to test various approaches in addition to sourcing feedback
    from the poker player community. Our aim is to reduce operational expenditures and pass back
    those savings to players and employ the lowest rake in online poker.


    Read White Paper For More Details:





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    Roadmap:

    *  Platform Development
    The Virtue Poker team has spent over 2 years developing our application, and will need to continue
    to build out our development team to build out a fully functional platform. Virtue Poker will hire
    developers to improve our P2P messaging backbone, create custom interfaces, optimize our smart
    contracts, and implement storage functionality. In addition, our team will integrate with ongoing
    Ethereum infrastructure projects including distributed storage, identity management, and stable
    coins.

    *  Marketing
    Virtue Poker will compete with market incumbents with large marketing budgets and sophisticated
    customer acquisition processes. We will dedicate significant marketing resources to guaranteed
    tournaments and freerolls, rakeback, marketing analytics software, and other paid marketing
    initiatives, including partnering with affiliates.
    In addition, Virtue Poker will host a pre-launch tournament with online and live
    professionals prior to launch and broadcast the tournament on the live streaming platform Twitch
    to showcase the Virtue Poker Platform.

    *  Sponsorships and PR
    Virtue Poker will sponsor popular poker forums, websites, blogs, and events. In addition, our team
    will pursue an aggressive PR strategy to communicate our platform’s value propositions to a broad
    audience.

    * Legal
    Our team has already begun consulting with well respected law firms including DLA Piper, ISOLAS
    and Ifrah Law, and with regulators around the globe. Our team plans to continue consulting with
    these resources as we navigate applicable legal and regulatory frameworks. Our team plans to
    pursue a gaming license prior to our launch to ensure our platform adheres to compliance
    standards and our players are sufficiently protected.

    Development Roadmap

    *Current State


    Virtue Poker was conceived in May 2015, and our prototype has been developed over the course of
    the last two years, see our history of GitHub commits:

    Our application currently is 13,000+ lines of code, and has been tested weekly since its inception.
    Internally our team has been playing games of poker using a Mental Poker implementation that
    works on the Ethereum testnets.
    The first version of Virtue Poker is desktop Python client that creates a custom smart contract for
    each table instance. Our team has successfully implemented a Mental Poker protocol for card
    shuffling and a game engine which is a state machine that connects with other peers via a P2P
    messaging protocol and hooks into Ethereum when peers create and join a particular table.
    Currently our application can play 6-handed and complete approximately 70-80 hands per hour.

    *  Further Development
    The Virtue Poker team has hired out our core team and will use the proceeds from our sale to
    continue to build out our team and the Virtue Poker platform. One of our goals is to redesign the
    Virtue Poker desktop app as an electron application. In order for our platform to be successful, the
    Virtue Poker application must undergo significant testing to ensure the games are sufficiently fair,
    the registration and identity verification method prevents low level multi-accounting and underage
    gambling, and our data storage mechanism is able to track data points necessary for compliance
    and to detect cheating.

    * Q4 201722
    Improve P2P Messaging Backbone
    The application uses runtime-swappable plugin implementations for different transports, and is
    currently using a very basic HTTP-server-based message exploder. For deployment, Virtue Poker
    will implement a more industrial strength backbone.
    Justice Implementation
    The presence of one or more Justices in a game allows for permanent offline (IPFS) archival of
    peer-level gameplay - which is important when trying to detect collusion or bot play, or simply to
    22 Timelines and dates are subject to change


    allow after-the-fact proof that things went properly. As part of the consensus mechanism a Justice
    prevents 2 players with hacked clients from cheating in a 3 player game: something other
    51%-vulnerable consensus mechanisms cannot do.
    Commercial Quality Front-End
    Virtue Poker will re-skin our current application and build out a user interface for our lobby.

    *  Q1 2018
    uPort Integration for Identity Management
    A user, when creating an Ethereum account for poker play, will be prompted to download the uPort
    mobile application and create an identity. The user will then associate his/her Virtue Poker account
    with their uPort ID. When joining a game, the user will use uPort to indicate that he is physically
    present, and we will use third-party attestations as our mechanism to combat low-level
    multi-accounting and account sharing.
    Data Storage
    Virtue Poker will use Justice nodes to collect and store gameplay at the hand level. We intend to
    store hand archive using IPFS, and to add a reference to the data to the table contract.
    Build out Multi-Table Tournament Functionality
    The “Multi-Table Tournament Contract” which will manage which tables are part of the tournament
    and what players are assigned to those tables. It will also manage tournament progress and
    resolution: who wins, and what. During gameplay, the 'table' is still the P2P subnet unit, and will
    function much as it currently does - but it will communicate with the MTT contract.

    Q2 2018
    Virtue Poker Private Alpha
    Virtue Poker will conduct private user testing for pre-registered participants to debug our platform
    and to source feedback to improve upon our UI/UX.
    Pre-Launch Event
    Virtue Poker will organize a pre-launch event composed of well-known online and live
    professionals and live stream the event on Twitch

    * Q2/3 2018
    Rakeback Mechanism
    Based upon ongoing user testing, Virtue Poker will implement a tokenized rakeback mechanism
    using VPP.
    Virtue Poker Limited Release (Open Beta)

    Virtue Poker will launch our open beta to users around the world who can create and play in single
    table Sit & Go’s and Cash Games.

    *  Q4 2018
    Virtue Poker Public Launch Tournament
    Virtue Poker will publicly launch via a large guaranteed tournament enabling users around the
    world to play on our platform.

    *  2019
    Third-Party Operator Integration
    In order to scale, Virtue Poker will enable third-party operators and licensees around the globe to
    create a custom skin on our platform and to create games on top of our underlying infrastructure.

    Team

    •  Core Team

    Jim Berry, 

    Lead Platform Developer: For 30 years Jim has worked on software ranging from the
    Hubble Space Telescope ground system to the Framingham Heart Study’s Research Data
    Application to Linux drivers for an aerial image acquisition system to installing
    appropriate-technology email systems for developing nations in the South Pacific. Most of his
    career, however, has been spent working on computer games for companies like MicroProse,
    Looking Glass, and Electronic Arts - among others - specializing in physical simulation and
    graphics.

    Ryan Gittleson, 

    Head of Business Development and Marketing: Ryan is an experienced business
    development and marketing professional with a background in helping businesses and products
    increase sales. Before working on Virtue Poker, he worked as the Head of Customer Acquisition for
    a New York based startup called TodayTix, a Broadway ticketing mobile application, where he
    oversaw a growth in its user-base from 150,000 to over 700,000. He also worked for Time Out New
    York in their national advertising sales department, and holds a bachelor's degree from the
    University of Pennsylvania. He discovered Ethereum in August 2015, and instantly became
    captivated about the global potential of blockchain technology. He has worked with ConsenSys on
    Virtue Poker for the past two years.

    Javier Franco Algarrada, 

    Platform Developer: Javier is a senior software engineer with 10+ years of
    experience. He enjoys working on full stack applications involving multiple technologies and
    environments. He has been working for more than 5 years in gambling across different products
    like lottery, virtual sports, casino games and sportsbook. Always interested in cutting-edge
    technologies, he decided to move into blockchain projects last year. He holds a bachelor degree in
    computer science and a master’s degree in web engineering .

    Peter Marr, 

    Game Security Consultant: Peter has been heavily involved in the online gaming
    industry for the last 12 years. Working professionally in it for over the last 9 years, specifically
    within online poker, Peter has gained invaluable experience in game security, financial fraud and
    back end operations. After leaving a top online poker site in 2013, Peter has consulted on projects
    in the online poker, casino and DFS industries. Peter came on board as a consultant for Virtue
    Poker to give direction on game security, operations and web admin design, as well pass on
    knowledge gained from playing over 1,000,000 hands of online poker. Peter currently oversees
    game security and works with the development team to further enhance the technical resources
    used by the operations team on a daily basis.

    Catalin Dragu, 

    Design: Catalin has been a digital designer since 2010. Now he’s working together
    with ConsenSys, creating fresh and engaging DApps. He believes that good design gives you a

    good spirit. And does his best trying to create a beautiful experience for the users so that they can
    enjoy it like a walk in the park.

    Marlon Violette, 

    UI Game Design: Passionate about the arts, Marlon graduated with a degree in
    Illustration. Book covers, video games and caricatures was his interest but now designing for the
    web has been the name of the game.

    • Advisors

    Joe Lubin: 

    Joe Lubin’s career has involved various posts in the fields of technology and finance and
    in their intersection. Subsequent to graduating cum laude with a degree in Electrical Engineering
    and Computer Science from Princeton, he worked as research staff in the Robotics Lab at Princeton
    and then at Vision Applications, Inc. Software engineering, finance and cryptography were central
    during employment with Goldman Sachs, eMagine’s consulting work on the IdenTrust project, and
    the founding and operation of a set of hedge funds run with a partner. Joseph co-founded the
    Ethereum Project, and has been working on Ethereum and more recently ConsenSys since January
    2014.

    James Slazas: 

    James Slazas has over 15 years of experience in the financial industry. At Lehman
    Brothers, James managed a proprietary arbitrage book of derivatives and created a global risk
    management group for the HNW exposure of the London, Swiss and Hong Kong banks. Later James
    co-founded a hedge fund managing a portfolio of life settlements, uniquely acquiring assets as
    contributions as well as pricing assets from both the VBT mortality tables, as well as, underwriting
    internally to determine longevity risk. Utilizing the health care components of the fund, James
    successfully negotiated a preferred status from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid’s Regional
    Extension Centers of AZ, CA, FL, NJ, and NY to rollout Med A-Z/Healthcare Inside’s nationwide
    electronic health record (EHR) and billing services as well as a joint binding agreement with HCL
    America, a ‘$6 billion publicly traded company to provide patient support analytics and medical
    billing services to laboratories, ACO’s, private practices, and hospitals.

    Patrick Berarducci: 

    Pat is Associate General Counsel for ConsenSys and a full-stack software
    engineer. Before joining ConsenSys, Pat practiced law for 7 years at Sullivan & Cromwell LLP and
    co-founded a health-tech startup. Pat is particularly interested in leveraging his legal, software and
    entrepreneurial experience in conjunction with blockchain technology to disrupt industries,
    markets and networks.

    Andrew Keys: 

    Andrew is the Head of Global Business Development for ConsenSys with capital
    markets, technology, and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, Andrew worked for UBS
    investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for creation and distribution of life
    settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle
    management company where he learned about Bitcoin and eventually Ethereum.

    Andrew drives strategic technological partnerships, business development, and communications for
    ConsenSys and Co-founded ConsenSys Enterprise, to create Ethereum blockchain solutions for
    Fortune 500 clientele.

    • Legal Partners

    Ifrah Law PLLC, 

    US Gaming Matters: Ifrah Law has represented iGaming clients since the inception
    of the industry, and now represents many of the largest iGaming companies and industry
    associations around the world. They have been at the center of most of the important prosecutions
    and lawsuits in the iGaming industry: our clients include the online poker sites Full Tilt Poker and
    PokerStars, for whom Jeff Ifrah negotiated a historic agreement in 2011 with the Department of
    Justice which paved the way for iGaming in the United States. Ifrah Law was also instrumental in
    the creation of the legislative and regulatory frameworks in the three states which currently permit
    online gaming: Delaware, New Jersey and Nevada.

    ISOLAS LLP, 

    Gibraltar Law: ISOLAS is a full service Gibraltar law firm and advises on the full
    range of legal solutions Gibraltar has to offer. An award winning law firm, ranked by the world’s
    leading directories as a leading firm in Gibraltar, their focus remains solidly on the client and
    delivering solutions. Trusted since 1892, ISOLAS LLP is this year celebrating 125 years in Gibraltar,
    the longest established law firm in Gibraltar.

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