Ardent United - Crowdfunded and crowdgoverned esports team. Blockchain + Esports = 💖

  • Ardent is an esports organization that cultivates new relationships between teams, fans, and
    sponsors. These newly formed relationships serve to maximize fan enjoyment, as well as
    sponsor and investor returns. Ardent will create token that will function on top of the Ethereum
    blockchain (“Ardent Tokens”). The Ardent Tokens will then be sold in a crowdsale
    through an initial coin offering (“ICO”) Ardent Tokens will serve several purposes, including
    but not limited to: voting, payment of bounties, profit-sharing, and sponsor interactions.

    Ardent United Intro

    Ardent United is a crowdfunded and crowdgoverned esports team. We use blockchain to create a decentralized corporation that is fully transparent. Tokenholders utilize our token in order to vote, participate in bounties, and receive dividends. Through the use of crowd governance, Ardent will make more intelligent and ethical decisions than other esport organizations. Ardent is founded and advised by people with strong blockchain and esports experience. The mix between the two industries ensures the success of Ardent United.


    The relationship between businesses and customers has always been the same. (The Benefit
    Corporation model is a recent counter to this. Ardent United plans to incorporate as a Benefit
    Corporation with the additional benefit of blockchain powered transparency and crowd
    governance.) A business sells a product to the customer and the customer gives the business
    money. There’s no room for information sharing and the relationship is rigid. This incentivizes
    the company to undercut its competitors and get as much money out of customers as
    possible. In other words, most relationships between consumer and business are a zero-sum
    game. There’s rarely an equilibrium between the consumer and the business. Unless the business
    can keep innovating at a breakneck pace, they must eventually cut product quality or act
    unethically. If they don’t, they risk having other companies take their profits.
    Esport fans are also not as engaged with esport brands as they could be. Many fans change
    team loyalties based on their favorite players. This is shown through the prevalence of player
    storylines in esports. An example of this is the League of Legends player Doublelift. Doublelift
    jumped from CLG to TSM, to TL. As he moved teams, many fans changed their team
    loyalty accordingly. Fans are also passively consuming team and sponsor content without
    actively engaging with the team.
    Ardent aims to do something better. Through utilizing blockchain technology, Ardent
    can create a system where our customers and outside sponsors are incentivized to
    develop a successful esport ecosystem. Through voting, fans will have extremely deep
    engagement with Ardent and it’s sponsors. Our symbiotic ecosystem will make the
    esport experience exponentially more rewarding for fans and more profitable for investors
    and sponsors.

    Esports Scene

    Esports is becoming an extremely profitable industry with massive public recognition. The
    largest esports tournament prize pool has reached $24,687,919 USD, showing the amount
    of money in the scene. One of the biggest esport games, League of Legends, has 27 million
    unique daily players and over 100 million unique monthly players (Riot Games.) Esport
    games do not only have many players, they also reach a very broad audience. All over the
    world, people from diverse backgrounds play many esport games.
    Esport tournaments are also very popular. The largest esport tournament in history had
    over 106 million unique viewers and 1.2 billion hours watched (Riot games.) This event was
    in the Beijing Bird Nest Stadium, which also held the 2008 Summer Olympics. The
    parallel between the Olympics and esports is even more relevant now. Esports are being
    considered to become part of the Olympic games which would further increase the
    With the esports industry growing extremely quickly, this is the perfect time to purchase a
    team. According to the NewZoo 2017 Global Esports Report, “Esports is a massively growing
    industry that is expected to reach revenues of $1.5 billion by 2020.” In 2015, the
    esports market already generated $748M in revenue, proving that a large market exists.
    Sponsors are well aware of esports large reach and are prepared to spend accordingly. As
    a result, Ardent United expects to profit from sponsor interest.

    Why Blockchain

    Hosting the Ardent United infrastructure on Etherum blockchain has several important
    • Transparency:All the votes are public and Ardent United fund spending is also public.
    This means that AUN tokenholders can have full assurance that their votes are counted
    correctly and that funds are not used improperly.
    • Resiliency: The AUN governance system has an extremely low chance of system failure.
    • Immutability: There’s no way (short of a hardfork) that anyone can change voting records
    or spending records.
    • Incentive Alignment: Through the different AUN reward mechanisms, the interests of
    the team, sponsors, and fans are aligned.

    Token Usage

    Tokens will initially be used for four purposes. Voting, bounties, merchandise, and sponsor
    • Voting: Fans want to vote to have a deeper connection with the team and investors
    want to vote in order to have money in a better company. Voting will be done through
    Aragon. Custom apps may be needed to accommodate the AUN governance protocol.
    • Bounties: We will have jobs that need completion. Examples of this could include
    video editing, photography, web design, etc. These jobs will be posted on Bounty0x
    or similar and tokens will be used for payment. (Sponsors may also want to utilize the
    bounty system)
    • Merchandise: Tokens can be exchanged for team merchandise. Merchandise purchased
    with tokens will receive a discount. Some items will also be exclusive and for token purchase
    • Sponsor Interaction: Partnered companies will want to give benefits to tokenholders to
    work off brand loyalty. (Ex.Use tokens to buy cat food for a 10% discount). Companies
    may also want to distribute tokens as a loyalty point system. This gives additional value
    to tokens. Tokenholders will be able to suggest additional uses and also vote to modify
    the token uses.

     Token Value

    In order for investors to want to invest in tokens, the tokens must have some value. Tokens
    get their value from two things, profit sharing and scarcity.
    • Profit Sharing: A portion of revenue will be distributed to tokenholders. Token holders
    will be able to vote on what percent of profits is shared.
    • Scarcity: There are a limited amount of tokens and the tokenholders are the only ones
    that can decide to mint more. If the tokens have strong demand, the limited supply will
    increase the price. Of course, scarcity does not automatically increase the price.

    Dividend Payment

    Dividends will be paid to addresses that hold tokens. Tokenholders will confirm their
    holding to a smart contract and will have their dividends paid out. If needed, the method
    of dividend payment can be changed through the voting system.


    The initial presale will sell a maximum of $1,070,000 USD (Esportsearnings.) of Token
    DPA securities on Re-public. For more information, visit:
    The initial Token DPA buyers will be the ones that determine the amount of tokens
    generated and the token price during the first and any subsequent PCO’s. (Public Coin
    Offering) After the initial PCO, there can be votes on whether more tokens should be
    generated and sold.
    Read for more information on the Token DPA.

    Post-Crowdsale Fund Management

    All funds raised from the crowdsale will be sent to a third party legal firm to hold. Funds
    will only be released to us if voted on. If needed, each game team will have a seperate pool
    of funds for people to vote on. This ensures that each team will have enough funds to run.

    Governance Protocol

    We will call a vote whenever money from the post-crowdsale fund needs to be spent. This
    includes items such as purchases, player hire, monthly/annual budgets, etc. Tokenholders
    will also be able to open up votes if they believe that money should be spent.
    Each voting item will include:
    • Effective Date: This is the adoption date plus the time for implementation.
    • Implementation Strategy: This is a text describing the details of the proposal.
    • Cost: This is the approximate cost of the proposal, denominated in ETH.
    The voting period will last for at least 30 days, and if the item passes, the money will be
    released and spent.
    We will begin the protocol by only allowing the Ardent United team to call votes. This prevents
    a 51% attack and other issues that could arise. Once we are sure that the tokens are
    properly distributed and that the voting infrastructure is properly set up, calling a vote will
    be open to other tokenholders.
    The voting will not be a straight democracy (simply counting tokens and the one with the
    most votes wins), AUN will be using an algorithm known as the “Surprisingly Popular Algorithm”.
    This algorithm was researched by MIT and is 21.3% more accurate then traditional
    voting. The voting ballot will ask two questions: “What they think the right answer is, and
    what they think popular opinion will be. The variation between the two aggregate responses
    indicates the correct answer.” (MIT) In other words, whichever option is surprisingly popular
    will pass.


    Question: Should Ardent United print orange t-shirts?
    Options: Yes and No
    Think most people will say Yes:30%
    Think most people will say No:70%
    The Yes vote was surprisingly popular as it got 10% more votes than people thought it
    would. This means that even though Yes lost the popular vote, AUN should print orange
    shirts. Further experimentation could show that asking purely objective questions (Which
    would sell more? Orange or Red?) could lead to more accuracy.
    Votes will be sealed using the same cryptographic method as ENS domain name bidding.
    The votes will be unsealed at the end of the voting period. In addition, voters may be encouraged
    to discuss in small groups, which has been tested to be 49.2% more accurate than
    pure crowd wisdom.


    a= Percentage choosing Choice A.
    Ea=Percentage expected to pick Choice A.
    b=Percentage choosing Choice B.
    Eb=Percentage expected to pick Choice B.
    If a-Ea>b-Eb then Choice A is correct. If a-Ea<b-Eb then Choice B is correct.
    Votes will be done quadratically. This means that the amount of voting power is equal to the
    square root of tokens committed. (Ex. Voting with 1 token gives 1 vote. Voting with 4 tokens
    gives 2 votes. Voting with 100 tokens gives 10 votes. Voting with n tokens gives nvotes.
    This prevents someone from getting a massive amount of votes by spending a lot of money.
    It also works as a preventative measure against the 51% attack.
    Quadratic voting necessitates a wallet verification system to prevent people from sending
    their tokens to multiple wallets. If someone had 4 tokens and voted from a single wallet, they
    would have a voting power of 2 (sqrt(4)=2). However, if they sent these 4 tokens to 4 different
    wallets, they would have a voting power of 4 (sqrt(1)+sqrt(1)+sqrt(1)+sqrt(1)=4). Wallet
    verification will initially depend on KYC verification during the crowdsale. Afterwards, a
    system will need to be developed as a permanent solution.

     Voting Proof of Concept

    Many people may be concerned that a fully decentralized system of running a team could
    lead to bad decisions. However, studies show that groups of people, even people with no domain
    expertise, make better predictions than experts. The Good Judgment Project, funded
    by the US government, aggregates the geopolitical predictions of random people. Together,
    their predictions are more accurate then CIA analysts with access to classified information.
    This project is done without the Surprisingly Popular algorithm, which would increase accuracy.
    All data done on crowd research shows that by aggregating crowd predictions,
    better decisions will be made then on the sole judgment of experts/team owners.







    e-mail:[email protected]


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