Ludos Protocol - A Decentralized Gaming Ecosystem
What is Ludos Protocol?
The Ludos Protocol is a decentralized solution for
game ecosystem. The protocol is mainly composed
of three parts:
Main chain + multi-sidechain infrastructure
The Ludos main chain uses PoW+PoS as its
consensus mechanism, and
like multi-sidechain system to improve scalability.
Games with many thousands of users can perform
many complex operations on their own sidechain,
with only minimal interaction with the Ludos main
Toolbox for game developers
The toolbox contains: an abstract blockchain
interface, game assets issuing/operation tool, a
BaaS service for maintaining game sidechains,
data persistence tool, fair pseudorandom number
DApps and incentivized game ecosystem
The ecosystem includes: a decentralized game
assets exchange, a game assets management
wallet, a decentralized game distribution platform,
a fair ranking and achievement system, a game
DAICO and investment protocol and incentive rule
sets for all participants.
Currently, the application of blockchain technology
in the game industry faces multiple problems such
as public blockchains’ severe lack of throughput
capacity, over-occupation of resources caused
by executing smart contracts, the complete traffic
jam caused by a single popular dApp, difficulties
for developers, and the incomplete divergence
and convergence of the business environment.
Fortunately, Ludos chooses to not apply these new
but immature technologies blindly, but to adopt
technology that has been proven to be successful
and to integrate matured technology from the open-
source community into the current game industry.
Ludos recognizes the technical limitations of current
blockchains,and will balance the decentralization
and efficiency the blockchain. Ludos will disclose
core codes to developers to establish a trustless and
efficient game ecosystem.
Ludos utilizes smart contract to manage game
sidechain, realize incentive system, and fulfill
digital assets and in-game currency operations. In
addition, Ludos, because of blockchain technology
being transparent and inalterable, can achieve
the identification and tracking of digital assets and
copyrights, and record players’ achievement, rank
and game performance across multiple platforms for
Ludos will use blockchain technology and token
economy to reform the game industry, enhance
the flow of resources between upstream and
downstream industries, provide game players
with a more transparent gaming environment, and
bring more customer flow and new opportunities to
The Ludos Protocol and Its Technical Structure
The Ludos Protocol implements a Plasma-like
multi-sidechains system to scale the main chain, a
game can issue and peg its assets on the Ludos
main chain and perform complex game contract
operations and store data at the sidechain level.
Meanwhile, Ludos also provides State channels
based off-chain smart contract interaction solution as
a complementary to the sidechain system.
The blockchain game developers can always
easily interact with the blockchain system through
the toolbox provided by Ludos, despite of all the
Ludos believes that only an infrastructure is strong
and efficient enough to support multiple scalable
DApps can provide its true value.
Ludos Fund founded
Ludos starts financing
Ludos wallet and test network launched
Ludos blockchain and map ERC20 token launched
Multi-sidechain concept tested Decentralized exchange launched
Decentralized distribution platform and wallet that supports multi-sidechain launched
Multi-sidechain solution and baas system launched switched to PoS
Consensus mechanism of Ludos blockchain
Continuous development of ecosystem
Essential Team Members
E-Mail: [email protected]
Ludos Tutorial Number 1: The Concept of Sidechains Explained
The concept of sidechains was first brought forward in a whitepaper published in late 2014, by a team of developers from the technology company Blockstream. It is a blockchain scaling solution.
In the simplest terms, a sidechain is a blockchain that is attached to another through two way pegging. The linking of two blockchains allows the movement of assets between them without going through a trusted third party — an exchange. It also allows them to interoperate while supporting decentralized applications (dapps).
To move coins or digital assets from one chain to another, you send them to a special address where they are locked. This is followed by generating an ID otherwise known as a simple payment verification (SPV).
On the blockchain you are moving the assets to, you input this ID to prove that you have made your coins unspendable. The chain then releases an equivalent amount of coins.
Moving between blockchains in a sidechain architecture is akin to moving between two sovereign nation states. At the border checkpoint you give up the currency of the country you are leaving and receive an equivalent of the one you are entering.
How it helps scaling
The Bitcoin blockchain confirms about seven transactions every second. The Ethereum blockchain does about 12. In comparison, Visa confirms over 20,000 transactions every second. New chains attached to Bitcoin and Ethereum can help confirm more transactions.
Capacity becomes an even more pressing issue when the blockchain serves as backend for applications such as games. In November 2017, a game known as CryptoKitties was launched to run on Ethereum. In a month, it became so popular that it congested networks and slowed it down for all users.
A dedicated sidechain for CryptoKitties could have saved the Ethereum network from the congestion. Instead of launching it directly on Ethereum, the game could have used a separate dedicated blockchain connected to Ethereum for security and net overall confirmations.
The concept of sidechains allows scaling without the need for consensus on protocol upgrade. It also reduces the need to tinker with the protocol at the risk of breaking it. Furthermore, while chains are linked and nested, weaknesses in one cannot spread to others.
The initial design of sidechains has limitations. One of those is the difficulty of having a common ultimate truth as the chains are on the same level. It is like having several supreme courts and thus not knowing which one to take as the most supreme.
The Plasma sidechain
To solve this problem and also to make it easier to create sidechains, developer Joseph Poon, best known for being the brain behind Lightning Network, designed an improved version known as Plasma.
In Plasma, instead of having equal nested blockchains, you have parent blockchains and child blockchains. The child blockchains run on top of parent blockchains to which they are periodically connected. Child blockchains can have their own child blockchains but the first parent is always the ultimate truth.
Joseph Poon has equated the Plasma architecture to a court system where lower courts handle most of the cases while the supreme court gets to handle only a few that the lower courts either gets wrong or needs guidance on.
Ludos a protocol for a decentralized game ecosystem is designed as a Plasma sidechain structure. Through smart contract code you can create a separate chains on the parent blockchain. Ludos provides the toolbox for doing this.
The parent blockchain makes final settlements of smart contracts running on child blockchains. The smart contracts define the consensus rules on the child blockchain. The child chain does not have its own miners and it is secured by miners of the parent blockchain.
The blockchains on top of Ludos are bound by the rules on the mainchain and thus make them non trust dependant. In the event of disagreement, users can go to the main blockchain and enforce their contracts.
Ludos Tutorial Number 2: The Concept of Oracles on Blockchain Explained
Smart contracts, agreements written in code which get activated when predetermined conditions are met, are turning out to be one of the most revolutionary applications of the blockchain. Through smart contract, users including smart devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) networks, can interact and perform business transactions with one another without the third party enforcer services.
In a simple smart contract, an action of one of the counterparts triggers an activation. For example, the receipt of payment into an account can trigger a file to be sent to the sender of the money. The payment could also trigger a product shipping procedure.
More complex smart contracts however might require to be activated by data streaming external to the blockchain on which they are launched. For example a betting decentralized application on the blockchain might rely on the outcome of real world game matches to determine winners and losers. A smart contract on that decentralized application needs to be tapped on to make payment to those who make accurate predictions. This can only happen if it receives accurate results of the matches in question.
The role of oracles
This is where an oracle comes into play.
An oracle is a node, a platform or a channel that stands between the blockchain and the outside world. Its’ primary function is to relay data which is necessary for the execution of smart contracts from outside into the blockchain. The particular oracle for use is coded into the smart contract itself.
Different blockchains use the oracle in their respective ways. Some blockchains, such as Ethereum, use third party oracle services. These are separate projects that connect to it through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The third party oracles can be decentralized like the platform Chainlink or centralized like Oraclize.
Meanwhile, some blockchains have the oracle functionality coded into their base protocol. Ludos is one of those that belong in this category, making it more decentralized as a service platform.
Decentralized oracle designs are more in line with expectations of the majority of users especially within the crypto space. This is because users do not have to worry about compatibility issue. Furthermore, the functionality is well thought of right from the foundation of the platform.
Incentives to provide good data
In both centralized and decentralized oracles, it is the individuals who are tasked with sourcing for data and feeding it to smart contracts that need it. This might appear as a weak point since individuals can choose not to provide the correct data.
However in most architectures this concern is taken care of and handled through robust game theory models. Akin to the maintenance of blockchain themselves, in oracle designs, good actors are rewarded and those who try to game the system are penalized.
In most instances, those providing data through the oracle system are required to stake value in the form of native coins. If they share the correct data, they stand to receive a reward and get back their staked coins. However, if they provide the wrong data, they are not rewarded and also risk losing the money staked.