Updated Details Monro XMR
What is Monero ?
Monero is a secure, private, untraceable currency. It is open-source and freely available to all.
With Monero, you are your own bank. Only you control and are responsible for your funds, and your accounts and transactions are kept private from prying eyes.
Want to find out more? An overview of Monero's main features are below. If you'd like to try Monero for yourself the Getting Started section is an excellent launching point.
the power of a distributed peer-to-peer consensus
network, every transaction is cryptographically secured. Individual accounts
have a 25 word mnemonic
Account files are encrypted with a passphrase to ensure they are worthless if
Monero uses a cryptographically sound system that allows you to send and receive funds without your transactions being publicly visible on the blockchain (the distributed ledger of transactions). This ensures that your purchases, receipts, and other transfers remain private by default.
By taking advantage of ring signatures , a special property of certain types of cryptography, Monero enables untraceable transactions . This means it's ambiguous which funds have been spent, and thus extremely unlikely that a transaction could be linked to particular user.
To most people, financial privacy is very important. Yet in recent years, we have seen a staggering amount of big corporations, banks and governments having their records compromised, at every time leaking information about their users, their practices, their balance sheets. The unfortunate but undeniable conclusion is that there is no safe place to conduct private transactions.
There was no safe place to conduct private transactions. Monero provides a place where your financial activities are private . Monero is one of the leading cryptocurrencies in the post-Bitcoin world, and it is built on principles of privacy, decentralization, and scalability.
From an economic point of view, a currency needs to be fungible. Fungibility is a property of money that makes all units "equal". Without fungibility, money flows can be tracked and tainted, making it very difficult to use the digital tokens as money.
Monero is a secure, private, untraceable currency. It is open-source and freely available to all. It’s fairly launched on april 18th 2014, without premine or instamine . The Monero technology already spiked the interest of several established people in the bitcoin development world and cryptography community. The development is completely based on donations, community driven and with a strong focus on decentralization and scalability. With Monero, you are your own bank. Only you control and are responsible for your funds, and your accounts and transactions are kept private from prying eyes.
Read on to find out how Monero is helping to solve real problems and limitations of existing cryptocurrencies, and building a more private blockchain.
Monero seeks to provide absolute transactional privacy in an effort to create true electronic cash. With Bitcoin, as well as with the vast majority of cryptocurrencies that have been established since, any and all transactions are entirely traceable. Any casual observer can read through the Bitcoin blockchain , and for any transaction, this observer can find out the exact amount that was transacted, as well as the precise transaction origin (sender address) and destination (recipient address).
With Monero, for any private transaction, the same observer has no means to uncover the origin, destination, or amount transacted. As such, transactions on the Monero blockchain, are private and fundamentally untraceable.
But Monero is more than a currency. Driving the official slogan: “secure, private, untraceable” , there are a multitude of applications where the parties involved wish to remain private. The Monero blockchain can keep confidential contracts confidential. While the forthcoming, blockchain-powered internet of things will certainly place the cloud all around us, it is then increasingly important that open access tools exist to provide a secure boundary for private settlements.
An often overlooked, but nonetheless important layer of privacy in a connected world, is that of the networking infrastructure. We have teamed up with Privacy Solutions, and development is well underway to incorporate an i2p router in Monero. In a world where ill intentioned governments and ISPs can void an individual’s basic privacy rights on a whim, it then becomes necessary to establish a private communication platform.
The underlying technologies and cryptography upon which Monero is built, has been (and continues to be) the subject of extensive analysis and review by numerous individuals and research groups. It has garnered favorable attention by some of the most prominent figures of the Bitcoin & cryptography world, such as Andrew Poelstra (andytoshi), Gregory Maxwell & Nicolas Courtois.
With Monero, transactions are private by default. However, each user has the ability to select different levels of privacy, optionally disclosing their transaction information, or even provide audit access (view only) to his full Monero account.
While most cryptocurrencies align to theoretical principles of decentralization, the reality is that most fall short of such a claim. More often than not, it is not just one branch of a cryptocurrency system that is centralized in one form or another, is that that many branches are so.
With Proof of Stake currencies, irregular emission and distribution models cause most of the staking power to end up in the hand of a privileged few. Participants of lesser weight are reduced to second class citizens, with little chance of ever obtaining similar returns.
With Proof of Work currencies, of which Bitcoin remains the most significant reference, the mining process is largely concentrated in a handful of pools. This centralization of mining power, combined with a transparent blockchain, has already lead to various occurrences of transaction censorship.
Other currencies opt for a closed development model, thus centralizing the invention process itself. These closed platforms commonly fail to meet any form of public audit or expert review. More importantly, these are platforms that will anytime swing left and right, in order to satisfy the interests of the restricted group that holds control of development.
Monero contrasts with these examples in various and meaningful ways. Monero is powered strictly by Proof of Work, but specifically, it employs a mining algorithm that has the potential to be efficiently tasked to billions of existing devices ( any modern x86 CPU). This very characteristic, and more so once it is coupled with @Smart Mining, has the potential to ensure that for long years to come, the process of mining new Monero coins is within reach of the common individual, and not an exclusive opportunity to the owners of large mining operations.
Further, as transactions are private by default on the Monero blockchain, transaction censorship is inherently void. The Monero development landscape on the other hand, is very much the opposite of a closed or restricted access model. The core branch currently enjoys more than 30 contributors, pushing 1000+ comm its over the past year. The project is happy to take on new contributors and any future plans, long-term direction and priorities are openly discussed with the community. Indeed, the policy that governs contribution to the Monero codebase is exhaustingly inclusive - all contributions are accepted into the development branch, where new code can be scrutinized and tested by the entire community.
Most contributors in the Monero development landscape are quite passionate for an open source philosophy, and in this rich creative environment, new projects have sparked to life. OpenAlias is one notable example, which has seen adoption by (amongst others) a major Bitcoin related software product.
One of the problems with cryptocurrencies is scaleability. Most cryptocurrencies are derived from the Bitcoin codebase and thus have a " block size limit". This limit has become a big issue in the bitcoin community and lead to fierce discussions. Monero doesn't suffer from this block size debate, because it has a dynamic block size limit. This limit is automatically recalculated regularly based on a look-back window. A penalty system prevents out of control growth of the block size. Another issue with most cryptocurrencies is the development of a fee market. This issue is somewhat linked to the block size debate: the narrative is that when you limit the block size, a fee market will eventually develop. But this claim is highly debatable. When the transaction fees are supposed to be the main incentive for miners to secure the blockchain, it is possible the current consensus model will not be sustainable. At the moment, miners still act as they are expected: they mine on the longest chain. When they don't do that, they risk loosing the block reward. But when that block reward becomes small compared to the mining fees, it's possible miners will have an incentive to not mine on the longest chain and start a fork trying to "steal" high transaction fees which were included in the latest blocks. Therefore, monero implements a "permanent block reward". T he block reward will never drop below 0.3 XMR, making monero a disinflationary currenc y: the inflation will be roughly 1% in 2022 and go down forever, but the nominal inflation will stay at 0.3 XMR per minute. This means that there will always be an incentive for miners to mine m onero and thus keeping the blockchain secure, with or without a fee market.
is an important property of any functioning currency. You can try to hide your bitcoins as much as you want, if you tried to mix your non-fungible coins using a mixer, coinjoin or another type of "anonymity enhancing feature",
these transactions can still be flagged as "possible suspicious activity on the blockchain", even if you are anonymous. Using non-fungible tokens as currency can eventually lead to blacklisting/whitelisting either by
governments or through self-censorship. Some examples of these measures could be payment processors or exchanges refusing your tainted coins as a payment or deposit or miners refusing to include your suspicious transaction. Monero will
enforce a minimum mixing across the network, so all outputs are mixed by default. This is possible due to the nature of the mixing: monero mixing is "passive" and can even be done offline! Transaction outputs have "plausible deniability"
about their state: you can't tell if they are spent or unspent in a certain transaction or not. This leads to an opaque ( non-transparent) blockchain making all coins "equal". Fungibility is built into Monero at protocol level, making it real "digital cash" .
- PoW algorithm: CryptoNight 
- Max supply: Infinite (see note below) 
- Block reward: Smoothly varying 
- Block time: 120 seconds
- Difficulty: Retargets at every block
 CPU + GPU mining (about 1:1 performance for now). Memory-bound by design using AES encryption and several SHA-3 candidates.
 Initial number of atomic units is M = 264 - 1. However, once the block reward reaches 0.3 XMR per minute (sometime in 2022) that is treated as the minimum subsidy, which means that Monero's total emission will forever increase by ~157680 XMR annually.
 Uses a recurrence relation. Block reward = (M - A) * 2-20 * 10-12, where A = current circulation. Roughly 86% mined in 4 years ( see graph).
All Monero Downloads
Please visit: How to choose a Monero client
CPU, open source - Wolf`'s CPU miner.
CPU, closed source - yvg1900 - Yam M8a Miner New version - use at your own risk.
GPU, open source - Tsiv Nvidia GPU Miner (based on ccminer) Early in development - Thanks Tsiv!
GPU, closed source - Claymore AMD GPU miner - Early in development - use at your own risk.
The Monero Research Lab:
MRL research papers
MRL-0001: A Note on Chain Reactions in Traceability in CryptoNote 2.0
MRL-0002: Counterfeiting via Merkle Tree Exploits within Virtual Currencies Employing the CryptoNote Protocol
MRL-0003: Monero is Not That Mysterious
MRL-0004: Improving Obfuscation in the CryptoNote Protocol
MRL-0005: Ring Signature Confidential Transactions
The People Behind Monero
The Monero Core Team
Monero is not governed by any foundation or central body, but ongoing development, maintenance, and research is primarily directed and often funded by a core team of seven individuals.
Five members of the Core Team prefer to stay pseudonymous at this time, but two of them are more public and have revealed their real identities. For ease of reference those two members (Riccardo and Francisco) are at the top of the list below, but beyond that the list is presented in no particular order:
- Riccardo "fluffypony" Spagni ([email protected] / @fluffyponyza): Based out of South Africa, Riccardo brings a strong business acumen and a deep understanding of cryptocurrency, software development, and cryptography to the table. He has been involved with cryptocurrency-related projects since 2012.
- Francisco "ArticMine" Cabañas ([email protected]): Based in Canada, Francisco holds a PhD in Physics and brings extensive business and non-profit experience to the table. He has actively researched and invested in cryptocurrencies, since 2011, and focuses on the economic, social, regulatory and long-term viability aspects of cryptocurrencies.
- smooth ([email protected]): A software developer, entrepreneur, and investor, smooth has been involved in several cryptocurrency projects since 2011, including development of the first multicurrency exchange (initially supporting Bitcoin and Namecoin). By virtue of his long-standing involvement in the cryptocurrency community, he is well known and trusted by many.
- othe ([email protected]): Based in Germany, othe has been interested in cryptocurrency since early 2011. Currently he works as an independent consultant for various cryptocurrency-related businesses. He is known for his previous work as a core Vertcoin developer.
- luigi1111 ([email protected]): Hailing from the Midwest, USA, luigi1111 is a sysadmin by day. He has been actively involved in several cryptocurrencies since 2013, and loves cryptography, probability, and English grammar.
- tacotime ([email protected]): A bioinformatics enthusiast and software developer from Toronto, tacotime has been involved in cryptocurrency since 2011. He is well known for his work on MC2, a hybrid PoS/PoW cryptocurrency, and his contributions to various Conformal projects such as btcd.
- NoodleDoodle ([email protected]): A former Silicon Valley engineer, NoodleDoodle is a seasoned hardware and software developer. He started his involvement with cryptocurrencies in 2012 and currently spends his time working on "cool aerospace stuff" for a university.
There have been many individuals that have contributed to Monero code; a complete list of which can be found on our Github Contributors page.
The Monero Research Lab
The Core Team forms an integral part of the Monero Research Lab, but the researchers, scientists, and academics that are primarily focused on Monero research are listed below. They have chosen to remain pseudonymous for the moment. They are:
- Surae Noether: Lead researcher for the Monero Research Lab, Surae holds a PhD in Mathematical Sciences and brings a rich understanding of cryptography and homological algebra to the mix.
- Shen Noether: A graduate student focused on algebraic geometry, it is Shen's command and knowledge of cryptography that lends itself so well to his involvement in the Monero Research Lab.
- Sarang Noether: Having completed his Masters in Mathematical Sciences, Sarang is currently completing his doctoral degree in Physics, while devoting time on the side to the advancement of Monero research.
There have been massive contributions to Monero from its inception from so many people, including: zone117x, LucasJones, wolf`, Professor David Andersen, wallet42, Neozaru, Gingeropolous, cAPSLOCK, and many, many others.
Welcome to http://pool.monero.org mining!
Point your miners to pool.monero.org
CPUMiner (forked by LucasJones & Wolf) - MINERD
minerd -a cryptonight -o stratum+tcp://pool.monero.org:3333 -u YOUR_WALLET_ADDRESS -p x
YAM Miner (by yvg1900)
yam -c x -M stratum+tcp://YOUR_WALLET_ADDRESS:[email protected]:3333/xmr
Claymore CPU Miner
NsCpuCNMiner64 -o stratum+tcp://pool.monero.org:3333 -u YOUR_WALLET_ADDRESS -p x
Claymore GPU Miner
NsGpuCNMiner -o stratum+tcp://pool.monero.org:3333 -u YOUR_WALLET_ADDRESS -p x
ccminer (forked by tsiv)
ccminer -o stratum+tcp://pool.monero.org:3333 -u YOUR_WALLET_ADDRESS -p x<br />
Block Found: 3 minutes ago
Blockchain Height: 1135953
Last Reward: 10.6247 XMR
Last Hash: c5c0b640c9053...
Hash Rate: 6.99 KH/sec
Block Found: Never
Connected Miners: 13
Total Pool Fee: 0%
Block Found Every: 7 days (est.
This is the official thread of http://xmr.coolpool.io/
We're already one week old, and these are the numbers:
- 20+ miners
- 120KH/s hashing power right now
- 15 blocks mined
- 100+ payments
What else you need to know about us?
- 0% Fee while in beta
- Running on cool hardware: Dell PowerEdge R610 with 2 x L5640 hexa-core CPUs, 16GB of RAM and a brand new SSD disk located on the East Coast, near North Carolina, US
- Firewall passthrough on port 443
What do we need to know from you?
- How did you start mining Monero?
- What mining pool do you currently use?
- How exactly did you chose your current mining pool?
- Are there any features you would like to find implemented by your ideal mining pool?
wolf-xmr-miner Release 0.4
Fixes lots of bugs with newer drivers - also adds a slight speedup, and many improvements like CPU mining from hyc.
Ultra fast FREE Monero mining pool:
Point your miner to port 443: minerd -a cryptonight -o stratum+tcp://mine.xmr-pool.com:443 -u YourMoneroAdressHere -t x (where x is your number of cores).
0.0% commission until pool first birthday (2017/09/21)
Light, stable and reliable.
8 cores dedicated server: ultra fast!
2,5 Gbps unmetered bandwidth: low latency.
Firewall passtrought mining port: 443.
24/24 monitored pool.
Anonymous mining (no registration needed).
Monero v0.10.1 - Wolfram Warptangent - released! | Mandatory
This is a necessary point release of Monero v0.10 "Wolfram Warptangent", and is highly recommended as it includes consensus-changing fixes to the RingCT implementation and various other bug fixes.
Some highlights of this release are:
- major changes to support the GUI
- adds full support for "fluffy blocks", a propagation improvement similar to Compact Blocks in Bitcoin Core
- adds in a dynamic fee system
- expansion of the data stored in the wallet cache, including the GUI address book
- switch to Borromean signatures in RingCT
- add Monero payment URI support to the wallet library
- complete overhaul of the threading system
- optimise the wallet blockchain refresh mechanism
- created a contributing guide
- switched to a dynamic dust threshold system
- added a command to compute the total coinbase
- major RingCT performance improvements
- killed off the old fast_exit mechanism, which caused more issues than anything else
- improved and fixed the cold wallet transaction signing mechanism
- overhauled the sweep_unmixable implementation
- fixed FreeBSD builds
Official Download Links:
All available binaries can be found on the getmonero download page or on Github (at the bottom).
Official Direct Links:
If you would like to verify that you have downloaded the correct file, please use the following SHA256 hashes:
- monero.win.x64.v0-10-1-0.zip, 727a53dd154b61fd653f81da27788077fdf519301c81d3c1eb033c1ff2bf97c6
- monero.win.x86.v0-10-1-0.zip, ce77137b33bcaeb59273cb73b86e426e35e6209fb52a7e74fd9432a5a3018041
- monero.mac.x64.v0-10-1-0.tar.bz2, 447cebae257864b3706a8622f495bfd9fae780a6b277e1e31ac83bef7bc855c6
- monero.linux.x64.v0-10-1-0.tar.bz2, bf09eea27c957e7e2bdd62dac250888b301d4d25abe18d4a5b930fa7477708c7
- monero.linux.x86.v0-10-1-0.tar.bz2, 9a18d274970df85d6bc926dc99407959c680c36f19017996be9c758f6c02cf06
- monero.linux.arm7.v0-10-1-0.tar.bz2, forthcoming
Updating: Wallet Files
Simply create a new directory with the 0.10.1 binaries and copy your wallet files over to there. Make sure to backup your wallet files properly. If you need any help, feel free to PM me or respond in this thread. Note that your wallet contains three files, namely wallet.keys (this is the most important file, since it contains your keys), wallet (this is the wallet cache, which contains your transaction history and private tx keys), and wallet.address (which is just your public address). In addition, if you incur a bug whilst upgrading, you can always restore your wallet with the mnemonic seed as follows: For Mac and Linux:
On Windows make sure to launch it from the command line. Go to the folder monero-cli-wallet is located and make sure your cursor isn't located on any of the files. Subsequently do SHIFT + right click and it will give you an option to "Open command window here". Lastly, type the following command:
If you want to restore from the private keys instead of the mnemonic seed, replace
Contributors for this Release
This release was the direct result of 29 people who worked, largely unpaid and altruistically, to put out 481 commits containing 10 517 new lines of code. We'd like to thank them very much for their time and effort. In no particular order they are:</p>
- Randi Joseph
- Shen Noether
- Pierre Boyer
- Oyvind Kvanes
- J Ryan Littlefield
- Will Skinner
- Dan Miller
- Lee Clagett
- Riccardo Spagni
- Adriaan Joubert
- Dion Ahmetaj
- Jacob Brydolf
- Ilya Kitaev
General Hardfork Information
A general thread with hardfork information will be posted soon. The main thing to know is that you should 0.10.1. Otherwise, you will get booted off the network. If you are mining, make sure the pool you are mining on has upgraded its daemon.
Fluffypony will be building GUI binaries once he has finalized this release. Note that this could take a few days. In addition, any unforeseen errors may cause delays.
Monero Core GUI Beta 1 Released
The first beta of the Monero Core GUI has been released. Note that, at this time, we have not completed support for 32-bit Windows, FreeBSD, and ARMv7 Linux devices. They are all being worked on, and we hope to complete support for them by the time of the first release.
Download links are at the bottom of this post, and please take note of the known issues and caveats listed below.
- Due to several important updates, 0.10.1 wallet binaries will not work with with wallets created by the GUI. Please use the binaries included in the package instead. Note: you can definitely use the 0.10.1 daemon:)
- If you have been testing earlier builds you may have to delete your configs. There is a guide describing how to do this on this StackExchange post.
- Older computers may have an issue with the QT renderer, and will either crash or display a white / black window. You can change the rendering mode as described on this StackExchange post.
- Can I use a remote node? This is certainly possible. In the wizard, change the daemon address from
localhost:18081to the address of the remote node. For instance, if you want to use the remote node of moneroworld.com, change
2nodez.moneroworld.com:18081. Alternatively, you can specify a daemon address on the
- What do I do if the GUI is showing
Wrong Versionat the bottom left? If you see this message the daemon you are using is incompatible with the GUI. The daemon supplied in the binaries is compatible with the GUI. Thus, if you are seeing this message you are likely using a remote node, which is running a daemon that is incompatible with the GUI. Note that you will be able to receive funds. However, you won't be able to send funds.
- What if I get an "Can't create transaction: Wrong daemon version: internal error: histogram reports no unlocked outputs for xxxxxxxxxxxx, not even ours" error? This means that you are using a daemon that is incompatible with the GUI. This is likely caused by using a remote node (see above). Alternatively, it could be caused by using a version 0.9.4 or 0.10.0.
- What if I get an "Error: failed to load wallet: input stream error" error when trying to open an existing wallet This is due to the wallet cache (
<walletname>) being incompatible. You can circumvent this error by removing your wallet cache. The GUI will then open your wallet and refresh from scratch. It is advised to properly backup your wallet files before you perform this action. Also note that deleting the wallet cache results in losing some of the transaction history, namely recipient addresses and private tx keys. Thus, if you want to use an existing wallet with the GUI, it is advisable to backup your wallet cache in case you need transaction history info in the future.
- What if I get an "Error opening wallet: std::bad_alloc" error? This error is also caused by an incompatible wallet cache. See the previous question for further information.
- Can I open a wallet I created with the CLI? Yes, this is possible with the wallet picker in the wizard. Use the "I want to open a wallet from file" option and select your .keys file to open the wallet created with the CLI. Alternatively, if you already have a wallet opened and want to switch to your CLI wallet, go to the
Settingspage and choose
Close wallet. This will bring you back to the wizard, where you can choose your CLI wallet. Note that your cache may be incompatible and you may incur an error. If this happens, see the FAQ questions above.
Contributors for this Release
This release was the direct result of 32 people who worked, largely unpaid and altruistically, to put out 736 commits containing 321 056 new lines of code. We'd like to thank them very much for their time and effort. In no particular order they are:
- James Cullum
- Ilya Kitaev
- Kenshi Takayama
- Daniel Ternyak
- Riccardo "fluffypony" Spagni
- Guillaume Le Vaillant
- Christoph Mayerhofer
- Howard "hyc" Chu
- Derek Zhang
- Martin Zając
- Andreas Brekken
- Christoph Schnerch
Official Download Links
If you would like to verify that you have downloaded the correct file, please use the following SHA256 hashes:
- monero.gui.win.x64.beta.zip, cb8bdf36fb56739a0fa746bec8dd51fb3479d51a3b8f0ce41a771f1d5a924bdb
- monero.gui.mac.x64.beta.tar.bz2, 907bfb4832c74de6cec7df730dfce5d9ccc1e6de09b6a4546cb9eee1f8242968
- monero.gui.linux.x64.beta.tar.bz2, cecbe4b23f777442de861bc0981af0857dab043ed63be98f768cdd00825a8d09
- monero.gui.linux.x86.beta.tar.bz2, daabd11b271685cedf5d6321cbde5e6b7c2691630a4355a973fc0cb99b1d2dc9
Now you can mine Monero with us at
Reward system: 180Min PPLNS
Commission: 0% on the start
Min XMR to payout: 1 XMR
Supported clients: Claymore, tsiv, Wolf
Support SSL connections
Supported mining directly to exchange wallet
Efficient, optimized backend
Detailed per worker statistics
Rigs monitoring by email notifications
Welcome to our pool